The efficacy and prophylactic characteristics of omega-3 fatty acids in experimental gingivitis in rats

Document Type: Original Article


1 Dental Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Periodontology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Objective(s):Gingivitis is an inflammatory disease that affects tooth-supporting tissues and is caused by a microbe-immune response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on immune system regulation and the prevention and treatment of gingivitis using an animal model.
Materials and Methods: Gingival inflammation was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Forty adult male rats were divided into four equal groups: 1. Negative control group (sterile saline was injected into gingival tissue followed by oral gavage with saline); 2. Positive control group (LPS injection was followed by oral gavage with saline); 3. Treatment group (LPS injection was followed by oral gavage with omega-3); 4. Prophylactic group (oral gavage with omega-3 was followed by LPS injection). After 24 days, the rats were sacrificed and histological tissue samples were randomly evaluated for the inflammatory tissue changes. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels were measured by ELISA.
Results: The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in the prophylactic group and the level of TNF-α in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the positive control group (P<0.05). The severity of inflammation was normal, slight, moderate, and severe in the negative control group, prophylactic group, treatment group, and positive control group, respectively. ANOVA was used for the statistical analyses, with P<0.05 regarded as significant.
Conclusion: Prior consumption of omega-3 fatty acids is effective in reducing inflammation in induced rat gingivitis, resulting in a decreased level of biomarkers and fewer destructive effects.


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