Histo-morphological and seminal evaluation of testicular parameters in diabetic rats under antiretroviral therapy: interactions with Hypoxis hemerocallidea

Document Type: Short Communication

Authors

1 Discipline of Clinical Anatomy, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences. Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

2 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kampala International University, Tanzania

3 Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, The Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia

4 Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia

Abstract

Objective(s): Broad range of metabolic changes associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been reported over decades including reproductive perturbations. The current study aimed at investigating the role of Hypoxis hemerocallidea (Hyp) in the seminal and morphometric alterations in the testes of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats under HAART.
Materials and Methods: Sixty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into A-H groups, containing 6 rats in the control group A and 8 rats in the treatment groups B-H. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (110 mg/kg BW) followed by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg BW). The animals were then subjected to various treatments with HAART, Hyp, and melatonin.
Results: weights (body and testicular), histological, histochemical, seminal fluid, and morphometric analyses were carried out. Sperm count and motility were reduced in HAART (P<0.05/0.003) and Hyp200 (P<.003) groups compared with normal and diabetic controls, respectively. Sperm count was higher (P<.003) in HAART+ Mel and HAART+Hyp100 groups. Morphometry showed the reduction in germinal epithelium height and basement membrane thickness (P<.003) in the Hyp100 group compared with diabetic controls. Adjuvant use of Hyp and melatonin with HAART did not significantly raise these indices (P>.05). Histological slides showed gross distortions in HAART, diabetic and HAART +Hyp groups with marked atrophy in tubules, germ cell loss and areas of focal depletion of the cell. PAS staining revealed detached basement membrane in diabetic groups with strong PAS-stain.
Conclusion: The use of Hyp or melatonin does not ameliorate the testicular damages in diabetic animals under antiretroviral therapy.

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