Ketamine and its combinations with valproate and carbamazepine are ineffective against convulsions induced by atropine treatment and food intake in fasted mice

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Medical Pharmacology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey

2 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Yeni Yuzyil University, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract

Objective(s): Fasted rodents treated with antimuscarinics develop convulsions after refeeding. Food deprivation for 48 hr produces changes in [3H]glutamate binding suggesting glutamatergic contribution to the underlying mechanism of the seizures that are somewhat unresponsive to antiepileptics. Studies in animals and epileptic patients yielded considerable information regarding the anticonvulsant effect of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine. Thus, this study evaluated the efficacy of ketamine and its combinations with valproate and carbamazepine on convulsions in fasted animals.
Materials and Methods: Following 24 hr of fasting, mice were given saline, 5 or 10 mg/kg ketamine, 250 mg/kg sodium valproate, 24 mg/kg carbamazepine, 5 mg/kg ketamine+sodium valproate, or 5 mg/kg ketamine+carbamazepine and then were treated with saline or 2.4 mg/kg atropine (5-9 mice per group). The animals were observed for the occurrence of convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum.
Results: Ketamine, valproate and carbamazepine pretreatments were ineffective in preventing the convulsions developed after atropine treatment and food intake in fasted animals. The incidence of convulsions was significantly higher in 5 and 10 mg/kg ketamine, carbamazepine, and carbamazepine+ketamine groups, but not in the valproate and valproate+ketamine treated animals.
Conclusion: In contrast to previous findings obtained with the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801), ketamine lacks activity against convulsions developed after fasting. The drug does not enhance the efficacy of valproate and carbamazepine either. Using different doses of ketamine or other NMDA antagonists, further studies may better clarify the anticonvulsant effect of ketamine and/or role of glutamate in these seizures.

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Main Subjects


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