1. Vandamme TF. Use of rodents as models of human diseases. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2014; 6:2–9.
2. Mak IW, Evaniew N, Ghert M. Lost in translation: animal models and clinical trials in cancer treatment. Am J Transl Res 2014; 6:114–118.
3. Rees DA, Alcolado JC. Animal models of diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 2005; 22:359–370.
4. King AJF. The use of animal models in diabetes research. Br J Pharmacol 2012; 166:877–894.
5. Bader M. Rat Models of Cardiovascular Diseases. In: Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2010; 403–414.
6. Zaragoza C, Gomez-Guerrero C, Martin-Ventura JL, Blanco-Colio L, Lavin B, Mallavia B, et al Animal models of cardiovascular diseases. J Biomed Biotechnol 2011; 2011:497841.
7. Do Carmo S and Cuello AC. Modeling Alzheimer’s disease in transgenic rats. Mol Neurodegener 2013; 8:37.
8. Elder GA, Gama Sosa MA, De Gasperi R. Transgenic mouse models of alzheimer’s disease. Mt Sinai J Med A J Transl Pers Med 2010; 77:69–81.
9. Lutz TA, Woods SC. Overview of animal models of obesity. Curr Protoc Pharmacol 2012; Chapter 5:Unit 5.61.
10. Gobatto CA, Mello MAR, Souza CT, and Ribeiro IA. The monosodium glutamate (MSG) obese rat as a model for the study of exercise in obesity. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 2002; 111:89–101.
11. Rumajogee P, Bregman T, Miller SP, Yager JY, Fehlings MG. Rodent hypoxia-ischemia models for cerebral palsy research: A Systematic Review. Front Neurol 2016; 7:57.
12. Wilson MD. Animal models of cerebral palsy: Hypoxic brain injury in the newborn. Iran J child Neurol 2015; 9:9–16.
13. Alvarado, A; Faustino-Rocha, AI, Colaço, B; Oliveira P. Experimental mammary carcinogenesis - rat models. Life Sci 2017; 173:116–134.
14. Oliveira PA, Colaco A, De la Cruz P LF, Lopes C. Experimental bladder carcinogenesis-rodent models. Exp Oncol 2006; 28:2–11.
15. Arantes-Rodrigues R, Colaço A, Pinto-Leite R, Oliveira PA. In vitro and in vivo experimental models as tools to investigate the efficacy of antineoplastic drugs on urinary bladder cancer. Anticancer Res 2013; 33:1273–1296.
16. Vasconcelos-Nóbrega C, Colaço A, Lopes C, Oliveira PA. Review: BBN as an urothelial carcinogen. In Vivo 26:727–739.
17. Oliveira PA, Arantes-Rodrigues R, Vasconcelos-Nóbrega C. Animal models of urinary bladder cancer and their application to novel drug discovery. Expert Opin Drug Discov 2014; 9:485–503.
18. Faustino-Rocha AI, Ferreira R, Oliveira PA, Gama A, Ginja M. N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea as a mammary carcinogenic agent. Tumor Biol 2015; 36:9095–9117.
19. Szpirer C. Cancer Research in Rat Models. In: Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2010; 445–458.
20. Cheon D-J, Orsulic S. Mouse models of cancer. Annu Rev Pathol Mech Dis 2011; 6:95–119.
21. Fenwick N, Griffin G, Gauthier C. The welfare of animals used in science: how the "Three Rs" ethic guides improvements. Can Vet J = La Rev Vet Can 2009; 50:523–30.
22. Fraser D. Understanding animal welfare: the science in its cultural context. Toronto: Wiley-Blackwell; 2008.
23. Tannenbaum J, Bennett BT. Russell and Burch’s 3Rs then and now: the need for clarity in definition and purpose. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2015; 54:120–132.
24. Flecknell P. Replacement, reduction and refinement. ALTEX 2002; 19:73–78.
25. Balcombe JP, Barnard ND, Sandusky C. Laboratory routines cause animal stress. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 2004; 43:42–51.
26. Olfert, E; Bhasin, J; Latt, R; Macallum, E; McCutcheon, K; Rainnie, D; Schunk M. Guidelines on: choosing an appropriate endpoint in experiments using animals for research, teaching and testing. Can Counc Anim Care 1998.
27. Morton D. A systematic approach for establishing humane endpoints. ILAR J 2000; 41:80–86.
28. Committee U of PIAC and U. IACUC Guidelines - Rodent tumor and cancer models. Penn - Univ Pennsylvania 2016.
29. Gullino PM, Pettigrew HM, and Grantham FH. N-nitrosomethylurea as mammary gland carcinogen in rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 1975; 54:401–14.
30. Faustino-Rocha AI, Silva A, Gabriel J, Teixeira-Guedes CI, Lopes C, Gil da Costa R, et al Ultrasonographic, thermographic and histologic evaluation of MNU-induced mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Biomed Pharmacother 2013; 67:771–776.
31. United Kingdom Co-ordinating Committee on Cancer Research (UKCCCR) Guidelines for the Welfare of Animals in Experimental Neoplasia (Second Edition). Br J Cancer 1998; 77:1–10.
32. Forbes D, Blom H, Kostomitsopulos N, Moore G, and Perretta G. Euroguide: on the accommodation and care of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes. London: Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations; 2007.
33. Østergaard, G; Hansen, HN; Ottesen J. Physiological, hematological, and clinical chemistry parameters, including conversion factors. In: Hau, J; Schapiro S, editor. Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science: Essential Principles and Practice. 3rd ed. New York: CRC Press; 2011; 667–707.
34. Hofstetter, J; Suckow, MA; Hickman D. Morphophysiology. In: Suckow, MA; Weisbroth, SH; Franklin C, editor. The Laboratory Rat. 2nd ed. USA: Elsevier Academic Press; 2006; 93–125.
35. World Health Organization (WHO). Fact sheet no 297. 2015. Available from: URL: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/
36. Faustino-Rocha AI, Ferreira R, Oliveira PA, Gama A, and Ginja M. N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea as a mammary carcinogenic agent. Tumour Biol 2015; 36:9095–117.
37. Hunter JE, Butterworth J, Perkins ND, Bateson M, Richardson CA. Using body temperature, food and water consumption as biomarkers of disease progression in mice with Eμ-myc lymphoma. Br J Cancer 2014; 110:928–934.
38. Jacobsen KR, Jørgensen P, Pipper CB, Steffensen AM, Hau J, Abelson KSP. The utility of fecal corticosterone metabolites and animal welfare assessment protocols as predictive parameters of tumor development and animal welfare in a murine xenograft model. In Vivo 27:189–196.
39. Cheunsuk S, Gerken E, Osman G, Hood L, Ladiges W. Predictive parameters of joint disease in DBA/1 transgenic mice. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1999; 54:B271–5.
40. Hickman DL, Swan M. Use of a body condition score technique to assess health status in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2010; 49:155–159.
41. Wallace J. Humane endpoints and cancer research. ILAR J 2000; 41:87–93.
42. Stokes WS. Humane endpoints for laboratory animals used in regulatory testing. ILAR J 2002; 43 Suppl:S31–S38.
43. Faustino-Rocha A, Teixeira-Guedes C, Pinho-Oliveira J, Soares-Maia R, Arantes-Rodrigues R, Colaco B, et al Volume measurement of female Sprague-Dawley mammary tumors induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea: Comparing ultrasonography and caliper. Virchows Arch 2012; 461:S240–S240.
44. Faustino-Rocha AI, Pinto C, Gama A, Oliveira PA. Effects of ketotifen on mammary tumors volume and weight. Anticancer Res 2014; 34:5902.
45. Faustino-Rocha AI, Gama A, Oliveira PA, Alvarado A, Fidalgo-Gonçalves L, Ferreira R, et al. Ultrasonography as the gold standard for in vivo volumetric determination of chemically-induced mammary tumors. In Vivo 30:465–472.
46. Argilés JM, Busquets S, Stemmler B, López-Soriano FJ. Cancer cachexia: understanding the molecular basis. Nat Rev Cancer 2014; 14:754–762.
47. Evans WJ, Morley JE, Argiles J, Bales C, Baracos V, Guttridge D, et al. Cachexia: A new definition. Clin Nutr 2008; 27:793–799.
48. Faustino-Rocha A, Silva A, Gabriel J, Gil da Costa RM, Moutinho M, Oliveira P, et al. Long-term exercise training as a modulator of mammary cancer vascularization. Biomed Pharmacother 2016; 81:273–280.
49. Faustino-Rocha A, Gama A, Oliveira PA, Alvarado A, Neuparth MJ, Ferreira R, et al. Effects of lifelong exercise training on mammary tumorigenesis induced by MNU in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Clin Exp Med 2017; 17:151–160.