Renal histopathological and biochemical changes following adjuvant intervention of Momordica charantia and antiretroviral therapy in diabetic rats

Document Type: Short Communication

Authors

1 Department of Clinical Anatomy, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

2 Department of Preclinical Sciences, School of Health Care Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, South Africa

3 Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

4 Department of Basic Sciences, School of Medicine, Copperbelt University, Zambia

5 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo-Nigeria, Nigeria

6 Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia

Abstract

Objective(s): Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important primary cause of end-stage kidney disease. This study explores the mechanisms of the reno-protective effects of Momordica charantia (M. charantia) in diabetic rats following treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen triplavar.
Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=48) were divided into 7 groups (A-G).Treatment groups (B-G) had 7 animals per group and control group (Group A) had 6 animals per group.  Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ) by intraperitoneal injection (STZ 45 mg/kg body weight). The animals were euthanized on the tenth week with kidneys removed for examination and blood obtained via cardiac puncture.
Results: Key renal parameters showed no albuminuria, normal blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine and electrolytes in all groups treated with M. charantia. Untreated diabetic (Group B) and HAART treated diabetic (Group C) showed severe albuminuria, a significantly raised BUN and serum creatinine (P<0.05) and gross electrolyte disturbances. Blood glucose levels were consistently and significantly raised in all groups not receiving the adjuvant M. charantia (P<0.05). Levels of oxidative stress enzymes Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase and activities of Reduced Gluthaione (GSH) and Malondiadehyde (MDA) were significantly lower in all groups not receiving M. charantia. Histopathology in untreated diabetic and HAART treated animals showed severe degenerative changes in the glomeruli and inflammatory cellular infiltration while M. charantia treated animals showed an essentially normal glomerular appearance with capillary loops and normal cytoarchitecture.
Conclusion: M. charantia extract administration improved blood glucose levels, reinstates renal function, reduces body weight loss and restores hyperglycemia.

Keywords

Main Subjects


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