Investigating the role of acute and repeated stress on remote ischemic preconditioning-induced cardioprotection

Document Type: Original Article


Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research Punjabi University, Patiala, India


Objective(s): To study the effect of acute and repeated stress on cardioprotection-induced by remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC).
Materials and Methods: RIPC was induced by giving 4 short cycles of ischemia and reperfusion, each consisting of five min. The Langendorff’s apparatus was used to perfuse the isolated rat hearts by subjecting the hearts to global ischemia of 30 min and reperfusion of 120 min. The coronary effluent was collected to measure the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) for the assessment of injury to the myocardium. Myocardial infarct size was measured by the use of triphenyl tetrazolium chloride. Acute stress was induced by subjecting the animals to cold immersion stress for 5 min. However, in the case of stress adaptation, rats were exposed to a homotypic stressor (cold-water immersion stress) each of 5 min duration for five consecutive days.
Results: RIPC demonstrated a significant decrease in ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial injury in terms of decrease in LDH, CK, and infarct size. However, acute stress for five minutes prior to RIPC significantly abolished its cardioprotective effects. Exogenous administration of adenosine restored RIPC-induced cardioprotective effects in the presence of acute stress. On repeated stress exposure for 5 days, stress adaptation was noted, and there was no effect of repeated stress exposure on RIPC-induced cardioprotection. However, the cardioprotective effects of adenosine were absent in the case of rats subjected to repeated episodes of stress.
Conclusion: Acute stress, but not repeated stress exposure, may alter the release of adenosine during RIPC, which may be manifested in the form of reduced cardioprotection during ischemic-reperfusion injury.


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