The effect of different pulp-capping materials on proliferation, migration and cytokine secretion of human dental pulp stem cells

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

2 Clinical Research Development Unit, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran

3 School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran

Abstract

Objective(s): Biocompatibility of dental biomaterials plays a critical role in regeneration of dental stem cells. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of novel biomaterials of TheraCal-LC (TheraCal; Bisco), Angelus mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Angelus), calcium-enriched mixture (CEM; BioniqueDent), and Biodentine (Septodont) on viability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Moreover, the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells is a prerequisite for regeneration of damaged dentin. Therefore, in this study the effects of mentioned biomaterials on migration of hDPSCs and the secretion of some chemoattractive molecules by these cells were examined.
Materials and Methods: The cell viability of hDPSCs was assessed using MTT assay. Transwell migration assay was used to determine cell migration ability. The cytokine secretion was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: The biomaterials of MTA, CEM, and Biodentine at different dilutions had no cytotoxic effects on hDPSCs at different time points; however, non-diluted extract of TheraCal showed toxic effects after 24, 48, and 72 hr. Meanwhile, the highest cell migration was observed in the presence of CEM and Biodentine (P<0.05). The secretion of MCP-1 and TGF-β1 were higher in hDPSCs treated with Biodentine compared to some other groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). Moreover, TheraCal decreased protein secretion of TNF-α (P<0.05), and IL-8 (P<0.01) in hDPSCs.
Conclusion: The biological compatibility associated with CEM and Biodentine indicates promising applications in the field of vital pulp therapy.

Keywords


1. Ghoddusi J, Forghani M, Parisay I. New approaches in vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth. Iran Endod J 2014;9:15-22.
2. Zhang W, Yelick PC. Vital pulp therapy-current progress of dental pulp regeneration and revascularization. Int J Dent 2010;2010:856087.
3. Sun HH, Jin T, Yu Q, Chen FM. Biological approaches toward dental pulp regeneration by tissue engineering. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2011;5:e1-16.
4. Asgary S, Nazarian H, Khojasteh A, Shokouhinejad N. Gene expression and cytokine release during odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells induced by 2 endodontic biomaterials. J Endod 2014;40:387-392.
5. Tomas-Catala CJ, Collado-Gonzalez M, Garcia-Bernal D, Onate-Sanchez RE, Forner L, Llena C, et al. Biocompatibility of New Pulp-capping Materials NeoMTA Plus, MTA Repair HP, and Biodentine on Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells. J Endod 2018;44:126-132.
6. Park SJ, Heo SM, Hong SO, Hwang YC, Lee KW, Min KS. Odontogenic effect of a fast-setting pozzolan-based pulp capping material. J Endod 2014;40:1124-1131.
7. Zhu L, Yang J, Zhang J, Peng B. A comparative study of BioAggregate and ProRoot MTA on adhesion, migration, and attachment of human dental pulp cells. J Endod 2014;40:1118-1123.
8. Jeanneau C, Laurent P, Rombouts C, Giraud T, About I. Light-cured Tricalcium Silicate Toxicity to the Dental Pulp. J Endod 2017;43:2074-2080.
9. Dawood AE, Parashos P, Wong RHK, Reynolds EC, Manton DJ. Calcium silicate-based cements: composition, properties, and clinical applications. J Investig Clin Dent 2017;8.
10. Asgary S, Ahmadyar M. Vital pulp therapy using calcium-enriched mixture: An evidence-based review. J Conserv Dent 2013;16:92-98.
11. Malkondu O, Karapinar Kazandag M, Kazazoglu E. A review on biodentine, a contemporary dentine replacement and repair material. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:160951.
12. Buonavoglia A, Lauritano D, Perrone D, Ardito F, Troiano G, Dioguardi M, et al. Evaluation of chemical-physical properties and cytocompatibility of TheraCal LC. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2017;31:1-9.
13. Gandolfi MG, Siboni F, Prati C. Chemical-physical properties of TheraCal, a novel light-curable MTA-like material for pulp capping. Int Endod J 2012;45:571-579.
14. Torabinejad M, Parirokh M, Dummer PMH. Mineral trioxide aggregate and other bioactive endodontic cements: an updated overview - part II: other clinical applications and complications. Int Endod J 2018;51:284-317.
15. Zarrabi MH, Javidi M, Jafarian AH, Joushan B. Histologic assessment of human pulp response to capping with mineral trioxide aggregate and a novel endodontic cement. J Endod 2010;36:1778-1781.
16. Omidi S, Bagheri M, Fazli M, Ahmadiankia N. Effects of two calcium silicate cements on transforming growth factor-β1 secretion from human ental pulp stem cells. Iran Endod J 2018;13:522-527.
17. Raghavendra SS, Jadhav GR, Gathani KM, Kotadia P. Bioceramics in endodontics - a review. J Istanb Univ Fac Dent 2017;51:S128-s137.
18. Rajasekharan S, Martens LC, Cauwels RG, Verbeeck RM. Biodentine material characteristics and clinical applications: a review of the literature. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2014;15:147-158.
19. Laurent P, Camps J, About I. Biodentine(TM) induces TGF-beta1 release from human pulp cells and early dental pulp mineralization. Int Endod J 2012;45:439-448.
20. Hayashi Y, Murakami M, Kawamura R, Ishizaka R, Fukuta O, Nakashima M. CXCL14 and MCP1 are potent trophic factors associated with cell migration and angiogenesis leading to higher regenerative potential of dental pulp side population cells. Stem Cell Res Ther 2015;6:111-130.
21. Zhang W, Walboomers XF, Jansen JA. The formation of tertiary dentin after pulp capping with a calcium phosphate cement, loaded with PLGA microparticles containing TGF-beta1. J Biomed Mater Res A 2008;85:439-444.
22. Birkedal-Hansen H. Role of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in tissue destruction. J Periodontal Res 1993;28:500-510.
23. Goetze S, Xi XP, Kawano Y, Kawano H, Fleck E, Hsueh WA, et al. TNF-alpha-induced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells is MAPK dependent. Hypertension 1999;33:183-189.
24. Long X, Ye Y, Zhang L, Liu P, Yu W, Wei F, et al. IL-8, a novel messenger to cross-link inflammation and tumor EMT via autocrine and paracrine pathways (Review). Int J Oncol 2016;48:5-12.
25. Suh B, Yin R, Cannon M, Martin DE. Polymerizable dental pulp healing, capping, and lining material and method for use. Google Patents; 2008.
26. Torabinejad M, White DJ. Tooth filling material and method of use. Google Patents; 1998.
27. Mozayeni MA, Milani AS, Marvasti LA, Asgary SJAEJ. Cytotoxicity of calcium enriched mixture cement compared with mineral trioxide aggregate and intermediate restorative material. 2012;38:70-75.
28. Tomás-Catalá CJ, Collado-González M, García-Bernal D, Oñate-Sánchez RE, Forner L, Llena C, et al. Biocompatibility of new pulp-capping materials NeoMTA plus, MTA repair HP, and biodentine on human dental pulp stem cells. 2018;44:126-132.
29. Bagheri M, Fazli M, Saeednia S, Kor A, Ahmadiankia N. Pomegranate peel extract inhibits expression of beta-catenin, epithelial mesenchymal transition, and metastasis in triple negative breast cancer cells. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2018;64:86-91.
30. Modena KC, Casas-Apayco LC, Atta MT, Costa CA, Hebling J, Sipert CR, et al. Cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of direct and indirect pulp capping materials. J Appl Oral Sci 2009;17:544-554.
31. Qureshi A, E S, Nandakumar, Pratapkumar, Sambashivarao. Recent advances in pulp capping materials: an overview. J Clin Diagn Res 2014;8:316-321.
32. Collado-Gonzalez M, Garcia-Bernal D, Onate-Sanchez RE, Ortolani-Seltenerich PS, Alvarez-Muro T, Lozano A, et al. Cytotoxicity and bioactivity of various pulpotomy materials on stem cells from human exfoliated primary teeth. Int Endod J 2017;50 Suppl 2:e19-e30.
33. Kucukkaya S, Gorduysus MO, Zeybek ND, Muftuoglu SF. In vitro cytotoxicity of calcium silicate-based endodontic cement as root-end filling materials. Scientifica (Cairo) 2016;2016:9203932.
34. Mozayeni MA, Milani AS, Marvasti LA, Asgary S. Cytotoxicity of calcium enriched mixture cement compared with mineral trioxide aggregate and intermediate restorative material. Aust Endod J 2012;38:70-75.
35. Jaberiansari Z, Naderi S, Tabatabaei FS. Cytotoxic effects of various mineral trioxide aggregate formulations, calcium-enriched mixture and a new cement on human pulp stem cells. Iran Endod J 2014;9:271-276.
36. Torshabi M, Amid R, Kadkhodazadeh M, Shahrbabaki SE, Tabatabaei FS. Cytotoxicity of two available mineral trioxide aggregate cements and a new formulation on human gingival fibroblasts. J Conserv Dent 2016;19:522-526.
37. Poggio C, Ceci M, Dagna A, Beltrami R, Colombo M, Chiesa M. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of different pulp capping materials: a comparative study. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2015;66:181-188.
38. Bakhtiar H, Nekoofar MH, Aminishakib P, Abedi F, Naghi Moosavi F, Esnaashari E, et al. Human pulp responses to partial pulpotomy treatment with TheraCal as compared with biodentine and ProRoot MTA: A Clinical Trial. J Endod 2017;43:1786-1791.
39. Zakerzadeh A, Esnaashari E, Dadfar S. In vitro comparison of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three vital pulp capping materials. Iran Endod J 2017;12:419-425.
40. Abdulkhaleq LA, Assi MA, Abdullah R, Zamri-Saad M, Taufiq-Yap YH, Hezmee MNM. The crucial roles of inflammatory mediators in inflammation: A review. Vet World 2018;11:627-635.
41. Li L, He Y, Zhao M, Jiang J. Collective cell migration: Implications for wound healing and cancer invasion. Burns Trauma 2013;1:21-26.
42. Rombouts C, Jeanneau C, Bakopoulou A, About I. Dental pulp stem cell recruitment signals within injured dental pulp tissue. Dent J (Basel) 2016;4:8-23.
43. Deshmane SL, Kremlev S, Amini S, Sawaya BE. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1): an overview. J Interferon Cytokine Res 2009;29:313-326.
44. Hong KH, Ryu J, Han KH. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced angiogenesis is mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A. Blood 2005;105:1405-1407.
45. Luo Z, Li D, Kohli MR, Yu Q, Kim S, He WX. Effect of Biodentine on the proliferation, migration and adhesion of human dental pulp stem cells. J Dent 2014;42:490-497.
46. Goldberg M, Farges JC, Lacerda-Pinheiro S, Six N, Jegat N, Decup F, et al. Inflammatory and immunological aspects of dental pulp repair. Pharmacol Res 2008;58:137-147.
47. Goldberg M, Njeh A, Uzunoglu E. Is pulp inflammation a prerequisite for pulp healing and regeneration? Mediators Inflamm 2015;2015:1-11.
48. Nie X, Tian W, Zhang Y, Chen X, Dong R, Jiang M, et al. Induction of transforming growth factor-beta 1 on dentine pulp cells in different culture patterns. Cell Biol Int 2006;30:295-300.
49. Zehnder M, Delaleu N, Du Y, Bickel M. Cytokine gene expression--part of host defence in pulpitis. Cytokine 2003;22:84-88.
50. Silva EJ, Senna PM, De-Deus G, Zaia AA. Cytocompatibility of biodentine using a three-dimensional cell culture model. Int Endod J 2016;49:574-580.
51. El Karim IA, McCrudden MT, McGahon MK, Curtis TM, Jeanneau C, Giraud T, et al. Biodentine Reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced TRPA1 expression in odontoblastlike cells. J Endod 2016;42:589-595.
52. Imazato S, McCabe JF, Tarumi H, Ehara A, Ebisu S. Degree of conversion of composites measured by DTA and FTIR. Dent Mater 2001;17:178-183.
53. Hume WR, Gerzina TM. Bioavailability of components of resin-based materials which are applied to teeth. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1996;7:172-179.
54. Ratanasathien S, Wataha JC, Hanks CT, Dennison JB. Cytotoxic interactive effects of dentin bonding components on mouse fibroblasts. J Dent Res 1995;74:1602-1606.