The effects of synthetic orally administrated insulin nanoparticles in comparison to injectable insulin on the renal function markers of type 1- diabetic rats

Document Type: Original Article


1 Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

2 Department of Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Paramedicine, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran

3 Toxicology and Pharmacology Department, School of Pharmacy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

4 Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States of America

5 Student Research Committee, Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran

6 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Abadan Faculty of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran


Objective(s): Injectable insulin is the most widely used therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes which has several disadvantages. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of injectable insulin on diabetes mellitus-related complications in comparison to orally encapsulated insulin nanoparticles.
Materials and Methods: This study involved 42 Wistar rats separated into 5 groups, including control (C), diabetic control (D), diabetic receiving regular insulin (INS), diabetic receiving encapsulated insulin nanoparticle (INP), and diabetic receiving chitosan for two months. Biochemical parameters in serum and urine were measured using spectrophotometric or ELISA methods. mRNA levels of kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were evaluated using quantitative PCR.
Results: There were no significant differences between the two forms of insulin in controlling the glycemic condition (P-value>0.05), but oral INP was more effective in correcting diabetic dyslipidemia in comparison to injectable insulin (P-value<0.05). Urine volume and creatinine excretion were significantly modulated by insulin and oral INP in diabetic groups (P-value<0.05), although the effects of INP on the modulation of execration of urea, acid uric, and albumin was more dramatic. Oral INP caused a significant decrease in urine concentration of KIM-1 and NGAL as well as expression of KIM-1 in renal tissue (P-value<0.05).
Conclusion: Our results suggested that oral INP is more effective than injectable insulin in modulation of urine and serum diabetic-related parameters.


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