Effect of Mobile Phone Microwaves on Fetal Period of BALB/c Mice in Histological Characteristics of Hippocampus and Learning Behaviors

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Iran


The possible risks of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the living organisms and human body are a growing concern for our society. In this study, we examined the possibility of changes in working memory and hippocampal histological characteristics effects in mice brain following whole body exposure to microwave radiation.
Materials and Methods
During gestation period, we exposed mice for 4 hr to Global system for mobile communications (GSM), Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of 200 mW/kg. Pregnant control mice were sham-exposed or free in a cage without further restraining. Three month after exposure, animals were prepared for behavioral (Radial Arm Maze (RAM) and Morris Water Maze (MWM)) and histological studies.
The results showed that microwave exposed mice were slower than sham, and control in finding the platform. Analyses of error rates in RAM and MWM performance revealed significant differences which emphasize the effect of acute exposure to pulsed microwaves in deficit of spatial reference memory in the mice. However in this study exposed group didn’t show any statistically significant loss of hippocampal CA1, CA3 neurons versus controls or sham.
We conclude that there is evidence from the current study that exposure to MW radiation under parameters examined caused decrements in the ability of mice to learn the spatial memory task.


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