Effect of Anti-Microbial Fiber and its Interaction with Penicillin G on Opportunistic Skin Micro-Flora

Document Type: Original Article


Department of Biology and Microbiology, Faculty of Sciencse, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran.


The standard of hygiene in daily life and hospitals can be increased by the use of new antimicrobial fibers, which diminish the danger of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the antimicrobial effect of special fibers on some staphylococcus isolates was investigated.
Materials and Methods
The antimicrobial effect of special type of fibers produced in Isfahan Poly Acryl Plant on three species of Staphylococcus aureus, epidermidis and lugdunensis isolated from 96 samples of hand and foot skin    micro-flora was studied. The sensitivity of strains regarding resistant strains, to various antibiotics and beta-lactamase enzyme production was studied. The most resistance to antibiotics and beta-lactamase producer were chosen. Using the cup plate method, the inhibiting effect of pure antimicrobial agent on these strains was proven. Next, using shake flask method the effect of antimicrobial fiber on these strains was studied. In order to compare the effect of the antimicrobial agent of the fiber with that of penicillin G, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the fiber antimicrobial agent and of penicillin G was tested on the strains. The effect of the interaction of these two antimicrobial agents and their fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) on the chosen strains was studied using checkerboard method.
The results show a significant effect by antimicrobial fiber with 30%, 60% and 100% antimicrobial agent on Staphylococcus species after 24 hrs. Moreover despite the high level MIC of penicillin G on these bacteria   (8-256 µg/ml), the MIC of the pure antimicrobial agent of fiber at a level of 10-4 µl/ml caused growth inhibition. The interaction of these two antibacterial agents on the chosen strains was evaluated as synergism.
According to this study the antimicrobial effect of the fiber on growth inhibition of common, resistant skin bacterial flora is positive and therefore may be used after other successful clinical trials.


1.Vincent EJ, Vigo TL. Bioactive fibers and polymers. Washington, D. C.: American Chemical Society; 2001.

2.Tew GN, Liu D, Chen B, Doerkson RJ, Kaplan J Carroll PJ, et al. De novo design of biomimetic antimicrobial polymers. PNAS 2002; 99:5110-5114.

3.Perepelkin KE. Principles and methods of modification of fibers and fiber material. Princ Fib Chem 2005; 37:123-140.

4.Worley SD, Sun G. Biocidal Polymers. Trends Polymer Sci 1996; 4:364-370.

5.Forbes BA, Sahm DF, Weissfeld AS. Bailey and Scotts diagnostic microbiology. Missouri: Mosby Inc; 2002.

6.Rice LB, Bonomo RA. Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. In: Lorian V. editor. Antibiotic in laboratory medicine. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins; 2005. p.486.

7.Knill CJ, Kennedy JF, Mistry J, Miraftab M, Smart G, Groocock MR, Williams HJ. Alginate fibres modified with unhydrolysed and hydrolysed chitosan for wound dressings. Carbohyd Poly 2004; 55:65-76.

8.Pongsamart S, Nanatawanit N, Lertchaipon J, Lipipun V. Novel water soluble antibacterial dressing of durian polysaccharide gel. In: III WOCMAP Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants-Volum4: Targeted Screening of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Economics and Low; Chiang Mai 2005; Thailand.

9.Renaud FN, Freney J. Les textiles antimicrobiens. Pour to science 1999; 266.

10.Pillai SK, Moellering C, Elipoulos GM. Antimicrobial combinations. In: Lorian V. editor. Antibiotic in laboratory medicine. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins; 2005. p. 365-373. 

11.Yao F, Fu G D, Zhao J, Kang ET, Neoh KG. Antibacterial effect of surface-functionalized polypropylene hollow fiber membrane from surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. J Membr Sci 2008; Article in press.

12.Yao C, Li X, Neoh KG, Shi Z, Kang ET. Surface modification and antibacterial activity of electrospun polyurethane fibrouse membranes with quaternary ammonium moieties. J Membr Sci 2008; Article in press.

13.Shin Y, Yoo D, Min K. Antimicrobial finishing of polypropylene nonwoven fabric by treatment with chitosan olygomer. J App Polym Sci 1999; 74:2911-2916.

14.Salvio G. A new polyester fiber with antibacterial activity. MONTEFIBRE SpA 1999; Available: http://www.montefibre.it/en/polyester/pdf/sani_con00.pdf.

15.White WC. A new, durable antimicrobial finish for textile. ÆGIS Microbe Shield. 2005; Available: http://www.aegisasia.com/antimicrobialfinish.html

16.Ye W, Leung MF, Xin J, Kwony TL, Lee DL. Novel core-Shell particles with poly (n-butyl aerylate) cores and chitosan shells as an antibacterial coating for textiles. Polymer 2005; 46:10538-10543.

17.Dubas ST, Kumlangdudsana P, Potiyaraj P. Layer-by-layer deposition of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles on textile fibers. Colloids and Surfaces 2006; 289:105-109.

18.Shao H, Jiang L, Meng WD, Qing FL. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of a perflouroalkyl-containing quaternary ammonium salt. J Fluorine Chem 2003; 124:89-91.

19.Hayes SF, White WC. How antimicrobial treatment can improve nonwovens. 2005. Available: http://www.aegisasia.com/improvenonwovens.html

20.Doern CV, Jones RN, Pfaller MA, Kugler KC, Beach ML. The SENTRY Study Group (North America). Bacterial pathogen isolated from patients with skin and soft tissue infections: Frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (United State and Canada, 1997). Diagnos Microbiol Infect Disease 1999; 34:65-72.

21.Fass RJ, Helsel VL, Banishan J, Ayers LW. In vitro susceptibilities of four species of coagulase negative Staphylococci. Antimicrob Agent Chemother 1986; 30:545-552.

22.Goldstein EJC, Citron DM, Merriam CV, Warren Y, Tyrrell K. Comparative in vitro activities of GAR-936 against aerobic and an aerobic animal and human bite wound pathogens. Antimicrob Agent Chemother 2000; 44:2747-2751.