1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
2Laboratory Sciences Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
Objective(s): This study aimed to investigate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-np) on biofilm formation and expression of the flu gene in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains. Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ZnO-np was determined by agar dilution method. The effect of MIC and sub-MIC concentrations of ZnO-np on biofilm formation were determined by microtiter plate assay. The expression level of the flu gene was assessed by Real-Time PCR assay. Results: MIC and sub-MIC ZnO-np concentrations reduced biofilm formation by 50% and 33.4%, respectively. Sub-MIC ZnO-np concentration significantly reduced the flu gene expression in the UPEC isolates (P<0.0001). Conclusion: The sub-MIC concentration of ZnO-np reduces biofilm formation and flu gene expression in UPEC isolates. It is suggested to use nanoparticles for coating medical devices to prevent bacterial colonization.
1. Soto SM, Guiral E, Marco F, Vila J. Biofilm Formation in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains: Relationship with Urovirulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance: INTECH Open Access Publisher; 2011.
2. Wiles TJ, Kulesus RR, Mulvey MA. Origins and virulence mechanisms of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Exp Mol Pathol 2008; 85:11-19.
3. Oelschlaeger T, Dobrindt U, Hacker J. Pathogenicity islands of uropathogenic E. coli and the evolution of virulence. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2002; 19:517-521.
4. Anderson GG, Goller CC, Justice S, Hultgren SJ, Seed PC. Polysaccharide capsule and sialic acid-mediated regulation promote biofilm-like intracellular bacterial communities during cystitis. Infect Immun 2010; 78:963-975.
5. Hanna A, Berg M, Stout V, Razatos A. Role of capsular colanic acid in adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003; 69:4474-4481.
6. Solano C, Echeverz M, Lasa I. Biofilm dispersion and quorum sensing. Curr Opin Microbiol 2014; 18:96-104.
7. Van Houdt R, Michiels CW. Role of bacterial cell surface structures in Escherichia coli biofilm formation. Res Microbiol 2005; 156:626-633.
8. Schembri MA, Kjærgaard K, Klemm P. Global gene expression in Escherichia coli biofilms. Mol Microbiol 2003; 48:253-267.
9. Shrestha A, Zhilong S, Gee NK, Kishen A. Nanoparticulates for antibiofilm treatment and effect of aging on its antibacterial activity. J Endod 2010; 36:1030-1035.
10. Hajipour MJ, Fromm KM, Ashkarran AA, de Aberasturi DJ, de Larramendi IR, Rojo T, et al. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles. Trends Biotechnol 2012; 30:499-511.
11. Khameneh B, Diab R, Ghazvini K, Fazly Bazzaz BS. Breakthroughs in bacterial resistance mechanisms and the potential ways to combat them. Microb Pathog 2016; 95:32-42.
12. Diab R, Khameneh B, Joubert O, Duval R. Insights in nanoparticle-bacterium interactions: new frontiers to bypass bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Curr Pharm Design 2015; 21:4095-4105.
13. Huh AJ, Kwon YJ. “Nanoantibiotics”: a new paradigm for treating infectious diseases using nanomaterials in the antibiotics resistant era. J Control Release 2011; 156:128-145.
14. Jones N, Ray B, Ranjit KT, Manna AC. Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticle suspensions on a broad spectrum of microorganisms. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2008; 279:71-76.
15. Yousef JM, Danial EN. In vitro antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of zinc oxide and nano-particle zinc oxide against pathogenic strains. J Health Sci 2012; 2:38-42.
16. Samet M, Ghaemi E, Jahanpur S, Jamalli A. Evaluation of biofilm-forming capabilities of urinary Escherichia coli isolates in microtiter plate using two different culture media. International Journal Of Molecular And Clinical Microbiology 2013; 3:244-247.
17. Naves P, Del Prado G, Huelves L, Gracia M, Ruiz V, Blanco J, et al. Measurement of biofilm formation by clinical isolates of Escherichia coli is method‐dependent. J Appl Microbiol 2008; 105:585-590.
18. Wallecha A, Oreh H, van der Woude MW. Control of gene expression at a bacterial leader RNA, the agn43 gene encoding outer membrane protein Ag43 of escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 2014; 196:2728-2735.
19. Viveiros M, Dupont M, Rodrigues L, Couto I, Davin-Regli A, Martins M, et al. Antibiotic stress, genetic response and altered permeability of E. coli. PloS One 2007; 2:e365.
20. Schmittgen TD, Livak KJ. Analyzing real-time PCR data by the comparative CT method. Nature protocols 2008; 3:1101-1108.
21.Vadyvaloo V, Martínez L. Mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacterial biofilms. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2014; 4:38.
22. Islam s. Effect of nitric oxide on biofilm formation by Escherichi a coli. Uppsalat Universitet 2008; 5:17.
23. Hoseinzadeh E, Alikhani M, Samarghandy M. Evaluation of synergistic effect of commercial zinc oxide and copper oxide nanoparticles against gram positive and gram negative bacteria by fraction inhibitory concentration index. ZUMS J 2012; 20:29-41.
24. Emami-Karvani Z, Chehrazi P. Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticle on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Afr J Microbiol Res 2011; 5:1368-1373.
25. Premanathan M, Karthikeyan K, Jeyasubramanian K, Manivannan G. Selective toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward Gram-positive bacteria and cancer cells by apoptosis through lipid peroxidation. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 2011; 7:184-192.
26. Padmavathy N, Vijayaraghavan R. Enhanced bioactivity of ZnO nanoparticles—an antimicrobial study. Materials Sci Technol Adv Mater 2008; 9:035004.
27. Ansari MA, Khan HM, Khan AA, Sultan A, Azam A. Synthesis and characterization of the antibacterial potential of ZnO nanoparticles against extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a tertiary care hospital of North India. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2012; 94:467-477.
28. Applerot G, Lellouche J, Perkas N, Nitzan Y, Gedanken A, Banin E. ZnO nanoparticle-coated surfaces inhibit bacterial biofilm formation and increase antibiotic susceptibility. Rsc Adv 2012; 2:2314-2321.
29. Musarrat J, Ali K, Ansari M, Saquib Q, Siddiqui M, Khan S, et al. Green Synthesis of nanoparticles and their role as nano-antibiotics and anti-biofilm agents. Planta Med 2015; 81:OA44.