Metabolomics diagnostic approach to mustard airway diseases: a preliminary study

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran

2 Pulmonary Department, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Labbafinejad Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

6 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

7 Physiotherapy Research Center, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

8 Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

9 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Objective(s): This study aims to evaluate combined proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolic profiling approaches, for discriminating between mustard airway diseases (MADs) and healthy controls and for providing biochemical information on this disease.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, analysis of serum samples collected from 17 MAD subjects and 12 healthy controls was performed using NMR. Of these subjects, 14 (8 patients and 6 controls) were analyzed by GC-MS. Then, their spectral profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA).
Results: A panel of twenty eight metabolite biomarkers was generated for MADs, sixteen  NMR-derived metabolites (3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, lactic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, proline, hydroxyproline, dimethylamine, creatine, citrulline, choline, acetic acid, acetoacetate, cholesterol, alanine, and lipid (mainly VLDL)) and twelve GC-MS-derived metabolites (threonine, phenylalanine, citric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, tyrosine, arachidonic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid). This composite biomarker panel could effectively discriminate MAD subjects from healthy controls, achieving an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 1 and 0.79 for NMR and GC-MS, respectively.
Conclusion: In the present study, a robust panel of twenty-eight biomarkers for detecting MADs was established. This panel is involved in three metabolic pathways including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, arginine, and proline metabolism, and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and could differentiate MAD subjects from healthy controls with a higher accuracy.


Main Subjects

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