Epidemiological burden of Listeria monocytogenes in Iran

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran


Objective(s): Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogenic bacteria causing the infection listeriosis, which possibly affects all people, particularly immunocompromised persons and pregnant women. This microorganism can be found in several processed foods, dairy products, raw milk, meat and fish products, seafoods, eggs, fruits, and vegetables. This review discusses about the epidemiological significance, incidence, contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in different products and current data about listeriosis in the Iran.
Materials and Methods: For accessing to relevant articles and studies, a search was done in main databases and also, almost all Iranian published articles were studied in this field.
Results: Outbreaks of listeriosis have been reported in many parts of the worldwide, however there is scanty data about the prevalence of listeriosis in Iran. Accordingly, as a result of high incidence of L. monocytogenes in women with bad obstetric history or history of abortions, diagnosis procedures for detection of L. monocytogenes and timely treatment was suggested.
Conclusion: In spite of low incidence of infection in the past, increased interest for lightly preserved and/or ready-to-eat (RTE) food products has recently led to increasing of L. monocytogenes prevalence which has become a public health concern. Subsequently, further researches about the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and also antibiotic susceptibility testing is needed to enable the detection of the contaminated foods, as well as ensures the effective treatment.


Main Subjects

1. Nyfeldt A. Etiologie de la mononucleose infectieuse. CR Soc Biol 1929; 101:590-591.
2. Schlech III WF, Lavigne PM, Bortolussi RA, Allen AC, Haldane EV, Wort AJ, et al. Epidemic listeriosis—evidence for transmission by food. N Engl J Med 1983; 308:203-206.
3. Scharff RL. Economic burden from health losses due to foodborne illness in the United States. J Food Prot 2012; 75:123-131.
4. Orsi RH, Wiedmann M. Characteristics and distribution of Listeria spp., including Listeria species newly described since 2009. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2016; 100:5273-5287.
5. de Noordhout CM, Devleesschauwer B, Angulo FJ, Verbeke G, Haagsma J, Kirk M, et al. The global burden of listeriosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2014; 14:1073-1082.
6. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. An Epid Rep 2016 – Listeriosis. [Internet]. Stockholm: ECDC; 2016.
7. Zamani-Zadeh M, Sheikh-Zeinoddin M, Soleimanian-Zad S. Prevalence and Characterization of Listeria Species in Domestic and Industrial Cheeses of Isfahan Region. Iran J Public Health 2011; 40:98-104.
8. Rahimi E, Shakerian A, Raissy M. Prevalence of Listeria species in fresh and frozen fish and shrimp in Iran. Ann Microbiol 2012; 62:37-40.
9. Allerberger F. Listeria: growth, phenotypic differentiation and molecular microbiology. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2003; 35:183-189.
10. Bader G, Al-Tarawneh M, Myers J. Review of prosthetic joint infection from Listeria monocytogenes. Surg Infect 2016; 17:739-744.
11. Takahashi H, Iwakawa A, Ohshima C, Kyoui D, Kumano S, Kuda T, et al. A rapid typing method for Listeria monocytogenes based on high-throughput multilocus sequence typing (Hi-MLST). Int J Food Microbiol 2017; 243:84-89.
12. Abdollahzadeh E, Ojagh SM, Hosseini H, Irajian G, Ghaemi EA. Predictive modeling of survival/death of Listeria monocytogenes in liquid media: Bacterial responses to cinnamon essential oil, ZnO nanoparticles, and strain. Food Control 2017; 73:954-965.
13. Havelaar AH, Van Rosse F, Bucura C, Toetenel MA, Haagsma JA, Kurowicka D, et al. Prioritizing emerging zoonoses in the Netherlands. PloS one 2010; 5:e13965.
14. Warriner K, Namvar A. What is the hysteria with Listeria? Trends Food Sci Technol 2009; 20:245-254.
15. Popovic I, Heron B, Covacin C. Listeria: an Australian perspective (2001–2010). Foodborne Pathog Dis 2014; 11:425-432.
16. Allerberger F, Wagner M. Listeriosis: a resurgent foodborne infection. Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16:16-23.
17. Hernandez-Milian A, Payeras-Cifre A. What is new in listeriosis? Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014.
18. Doganay M. Listeriosis: clinical presentation. Pathog Dis 2003; 35:173-175.
19. Schlech III WF, Acheson D. Foodborne listeriosis. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31:770-775.
20. Charlier C, Perrodeau É, Leclercq A, Cazenave B, Pilmis B, Henry B, et al. Clinical features and prognostic factors of listeriosis: the MONALISA national prospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis 2017; 17:510-519.
21. Gillespie IA, McLauchlin J, Little CL, Penman C, Mook P, Grant K, et al. Disease presentation in relation to infection foci for non-pregnancy-associated human listeriosis in England and Wales, 2001 to 2007. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47:3301-3307.
22. Clauss HE, Lorber B. Central nervous system infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2008; 10:300-306.
23. Mailles A, Vaillant V, Stahl J. Infectious encephalitis in France from 2000 to 2002: the hospital database is a valuable but limited source of information for epidemiological studies. Med Mal Infect 2007; 37:95-102.
24. Zhang J-R, Tuomanen E. Molecular and cellular mechanisms for microbial entry into the CNS. J Neurovirol 1999; 5:591-603.
25. Drevets DA, Jelinek TA, Freitag NE. Listeria monocytogenes-infected phagocytes can initiate central nervous system infection in mice. Infect Immun 2001; 69:1344-1350.
26. Mailles A, Stahl J-P. Infectious encephalitis in France in 2007: a national prospective study. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49:1838-1847.
27. Quist-Paulsen E, Kran A-MB, Dunlop O, Wilson J, Ormaasen V. Infectious encephalitis: a description of a Norwegian cohort. Scand J Infect Dis. 2013; 45:179-185.
28. Brouwer MC, Beek Dvd, Heckenberg SG, Spanjaard L, Gans Jd. Community-acquired Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in adults. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43:1233-1238.
29. Mylonakis E, Hohmann EL, Calderwood SB. Central Nervous System Infection with Listeria monocytogenes: 33 Years’ Experience at a General Hospital and Review of 776 Episodes from the Literature. Medicine 1998; 77:313-336.
30. Wadhwa Desai R, Smith MA. Pregnancy‐related listeriosis. Birth Defects Res 2017; 109:324-335.
31. Mylonakis E, Paliou M, Hohmann EL, Calderwood SB, Wing EJ. Listeriosis during pregnancy: a case series and review of 222 cases. Medicine 2002; 81:260-269.
32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Listeria surveillance annual summary, 2014 Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2015.
33. Awofisayo A, Amar C, Ruggles R, Elson R, Adak G, Mook P, et al. Pregnancy-associated listeriosis in England and Wales. Epidemiol Infect 2015; 143:249-256.
34. Filipello V, Amato E, Gori M, Huedo P, Ciceri G, Lomonaco S, et al. Epidemiology and molecular typing of pregnancy-associated listeriosis cases in lombardy, Italy, over a 10-year period (2005–2014). Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2017; 2017.
35. DiMaio H. Listeria infection in women. Primary care update for Ob/Gyns 2000; 7:40-45.
36. McLauchlin J. Human listeriosis in Britain, 1967–85, a summary of 722 cases: 1. Listeriosis during pregnancy and in the newborn. Epidemiol Infect 1990; 104:181-189.
37. Swaminathan B, Gerner-Smidt P. The epidemiology of human listeriosis. Microb Infect 2007; 9:1236-1243.
38. Dalton CB, Austin CC, Sobel J, Hayes PS, Bibb WF, Graves LM, et al. An outbreak of gastroenteritis and fever due to Listeria monocytogenes in milk. N Engl J Med 1997; 336:100-106.
39. Frye DM, Zweig R, Sturgeon J, Tormey M, LeCavalier M, Lee I, et al. An outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis associated with delicatessen meat contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35:943-949.
40. Godshall CE, Suh G, Lorber B. Cutaneous listeriosis. J. Clin. Microbiol 2013; 51:3591-3596.
41. Adzitey F, Huda N, Ali GRR. Molecular techniques for detecting and typing of bacteria, advantages and application to foodborne pathogens isolated from ducks. 3 Biotech 2013; 3:97-107.
42. Mateus T, Silva J, Maia RL, Teixeira P. Listeriosis during pregnancy: a public health concern. ISRN Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2013.
43. Mena C, Almeida G, Teixeira P, Hogg T, Gibbs PA. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in different food products commercialized in Portugal. Food Microbiol 2004; 21:213-216.
44. Mansouri-Najand L, Kianpour M, Sami M, Jajarmi M, editors. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk in Kerman, Iran. Veterinary Research Forum; 2015: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
45. Vilar M, Yus E, Sanjuán M, Diéguez F, Rodríguez-Otero J. Prevalence of and risk factors for Listeria species on dairy farms. J Dairy Sci 2007; 90:5083-5088.
46. Rahimi E, Ameri M, Momtaz H. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria species isolated from milk and dairy products in Iran. Food Control 2010; 21:1448-1452.
47. Shamloo Aghakhani E, Jalali M, Mirlohi M, Abdi Moghadam Z, Shamloo Aghakhani E, Reza Maracy M, et al. Prevalence of Listeria species in raw milk in Isfahan, Iran. J Isf Med Sci 2012; 30.
48. Zarif BR. Listeria monocytogenesis in raw and pasteurized milk from Kurdistan province [in persian]. Vet J IAU 2010; 3.
49. Abdimoghadam Z, Shamloo E, Atefi M. Frequency of Listeria species in raw milk and traditional dairy products in Isfahan, Iran. Iran J Nut Sci & Food Technol 2015; 10:101-107.
50. Mirzaei H. Microbiological changes in Lighvan cheese throughout its manufacture and ripening. Afr J Microbiol Res 2011; 5:1609-1614.
51. Abdi R, Sheikh-Zeinoddin M, Soleimanian-Zad S. Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Iranian Lighvan cheese. Pak J Biol Sci 2006; 9:99-103.
52. Maktabi S, Jamnejad A, Faramarzian K. Contamination of household refrigerators by Listeria species in Ahvaz, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2013; 6:301-305.
53. Kargar M, Ghasemi A. A survey on prevalence rate and antibiotic resistance of listeria monocytogenes in fresh cheese of Marvdasht, 2007. 2011.
54. Rocourt J, Jacquet C, Reilly A. Epidemiology of human listeriosis and seafoods. Int J Food Microbiol 2000; 62:197-209.
55. Ericsson H, Eklöw A, Danielsson-Tham M-L, Loncarevic S, Mentzing L, Persson I, et al. An outbreak of listeriosis suspected to have been caused by rainbow trout. J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35:2904-2907.
56. Pagadala S, Parveen S, Rippen T, Luchansky JB, Call JE, Tamplin ML, et al. Prevalence, characterization and sources of Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab (Callinectus sapidus) meat and blue crab processing plants. Food Microbiol 2012; 31:263-270.
57. Yildirim S, Lin W, Hitchins AD, Jaykus L-A, Altermann E, Klaenhammer TR, et al. Epidemic clone I-specific genetic markers in strains of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b from foods. Appl. Environ Microbiol 2004; 70:4158-4164.
58. Fallah AA, Saei-Dehkordi SS, Mahzounieh M. Occurrence and antibiotic resistance profiles of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from seafood products and market and processing environments in Iran. Food control 2013; 34:630-636.
59.Huss HH, Jørgensen LV, Vogel BF. Control options for Listeria monocytogenes in seafoods. Int J Food Microbiol 2000; 62:267-274.
60. Norhana MW, Poole SE, Deeth HC, Dykes GA. Prevalence, persistence and control of Salmonella and Listeria in shrimp and shrimp products: A review. Food Control 2010; 21:343-361.
61. Embarek PKB. Presence, detection and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in seafoods: a review. Int J Food Microbiol 1994; 23:17-34.
62. Jamali H, Paydar M, Ismail S, Looi CY, Wong WF, Radmehr B, et al. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulotyping of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from open-air fish markets. BMC microbiol 2015; 15:144.
63. Tham W, Ericsson H, Loncarevic S, Unnerstad H, Danielsson-Tham M-L. Lessons from an outbreak of listeriosis related to vacuum-packed gravad and cold-smoked fish. Int J Food Microbiol 2000; 62:173-175.
64. Basti AA, Misaghi A, Salehi TZ, Kamkar A. Bacterial pathogens in fresh, smoked and salted Iranian fish. Food control 2006; 17:183-188.
65. Modaresi R, Mardani K, Tukmechi A, Ownagh A. Prevalence of Listeria spp. in fish obtained from Urmia fish markets. Afr J Microbiol Res 2011; 5:5398-5401.
66. Zarei M, Maktabi S, Ghorbanpour M. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. in seafood products using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2012; 9:108-112.
67. Momtaz H, Yadollahi S. Molecular characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from fresh seafood samples in Iran. Diagn Pathol 2013; 8:149.
68. Abdollahzadeh E, Ojagh SM, Hosseini H, Irajian G, Ghaemi EA. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from fish, shrimp, and cooked ready-to-eat (RTE) aquatic products in Iran. LWT - Food Sci Technol 2016; 73:205-211.
69. Rahimi E, Momtaz H, Hemmatzadeh F. The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157: H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. on bovine carcasses in Isfahan, Iran. Iran J Vet Med 2008; 9:365-370.
70. Jalali M, Abedi D. Prevalence of Listeria species in food products in Isfahan, Iran. Int J Food Microbiol 2008; 122:336-340.
71. Fallah AA, Saei-Dehkordi SS, Rahnama M, Tahmasby H, Mahzounieh M. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Listeria species isolated from poultry products marketed in Iran. Food Control 2012; 28:327-332.
72. Fatemeh Rostami, Shima Shaygannia, Hagar Madahi, Ebrahim Rahimi, Mohammad Jalali, Dehkordi FS. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Listeria species isolated from chicken nuggets from Isfahan Province [in persian]. Innov Food Sci 2014; 7:97-103.
73. Little C, Taylor F, Sagoo S, Gillespie I, Grant K, McLauchlin J. Prevalence and level of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in retail pre-packaged mixed vegetable salads in the UK. Food microbiol 2007; 24:711-717.
74. Foley D, Trimboli S, Lamb J, Gogley J, Thompson J, Caporaso F, et al. Acid-adaptation does not increase the resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to irradiation in a seafood salad. Int J Food Microbiol 2005; 99:147-156.
75. Goulet V, Hebert M, Hedberg C, Laurent E, Vaillant V, De Valk H, et al. Incidence listeriosis and related mortality among groups at risk of acquiring listeriosis. Clin Infect Dis 2011:cir902.
76. CDC. Listeria(listeriosis)  [updated June 29,2017July 12,2017]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/listeria/index.html.
77. Nazari GR. UN CAS DE LIST’ERIOSE HUMAINE EN IRAN. Revue medicale du Moyen-Orient 1963; 20.
78. Saadat zadeh H, Bahadori P, Abdolhossein NH. Some cases of listeriosis in Iran [In persian]. Tehran Univ Med J 1972; 29:289-293.
79. Lashgari K banoo, Etemadi H, Hassan A. Reports of three abortion due to Listeria monocytogenes [in persian]. Tehran Univ Med J 1974; 5:92-94.
80. Vand Yousefi J, Rafiee AR, Moradi Bidhendi S. A survey on Listeria monocytogenesis in raw and pasteurized milk in Iran [in persian]. Vet Res Biol Products 1988; 5:59-67.
81. Bashiribod H. Serological investigations for listeriosis antibodies in Iran. Geographia medica Supplement= Geographia medica Sonderband 1989; 5:209.
82. Jamshidi M, Jahromi AS, Davoodian P, Amirian M, Zangeneh M, Jadcareh F. Seropositivity for Listeria monocytogenes in women with spontaneous abortion: a case-control study in Iran. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2009; 48:46-48.
83. Tahery Y, Kafilzadeh F, Momtaz YA. Listeria monocytogenesis and abortion: A case study of pregnant women in Iran. Afr J Microbiol Res 2009; 3:826-832.
84. Lotfollahi L, Nowrouzi J, Irajian G, Masjedian F, Kazemi B, Falahat LEA, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Listeria monocytogenes in spontaneous abortions in humans. Afr J Microbiol Res 2011; 5:1990-1993.
85. Kalani BS, Pournajaf A, Sedighi M, Bahador A, Irajian G, Valian F. Genotypic characterization, invasion index and antimicrobial resistance pattern in Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from clinical samples. J Acute Dis 2015; 4:141-146.
86. Seify S, Ghaznavi RE, Zamani A, Alikhani M, Rafiei M, Zand S,
et al. Studying the prevalence of Listeria Monocytogenes in pregnant women in Arak. 2016.
87. Schwartz T, Kohnen W, Jansen B, Obst U. Detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes in wastewater, surface water, and drinking water biofilms. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2003; 43:325-335.
88. Olsen SJ, Patrick M, Hunter SB, Reddy V, Kornstein L, MacKenzie WR, et al. Multistate outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infection linked to delicatessen turkey meat. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40:962-967.
89. Gottlieb SL, Newbern EC, Griffin PM, Graves LM, Hoekstra RM, Baker NL, et al. Multistate outbreak of listeriosis linked to turkey deli meat and subsequent changes in US regulatory policy. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42:29-36.
90. Food Safety and Inspection Service. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products; interim final rule. Vol. 68. Federal Register, 2003:34, 208-54.
91. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Reducing the risk of Listeria monocytogenes: FDA/CDC 2003 update of the Listeria action plan. 2003. Available at: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/lmr2plan.html. Accessed 2 May 2005.
92. Salvat G, Fravalo P. Risk assessment strategies for Europe: Integrated safety strategy or final product control: Example of Listeria monocytogenes in processed products from pork meat industry. DTW Deutsche tierarztliche Wochenschrift 2004; 111:331-334.
93. Wiedmann M. Molecular subtyping methods for Listeria monocytogenes. J AOAC Int 2002; 85:524-531.
94. Wagner M, Allerberger F. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes recovered from 41 cases of sporadic listeriosis in Austria by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2003; 35:227-234.
95. FDA. Fish and fishery products hazards and controls guidance. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration USA. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/ downloads/food/guidanceregulation/ucm251970.pdf. Accessed 2014 April 25.  2011.
96. Liu D. Identification, subtyping and virulence determination of Listeria monocytogenes, an important foodborne pathogen. J Med Microbiol 2006; 55:645-659.
97. Lianou A, Koutsoumanis KP. Strain variability of the behavior of foodborne bacterial pathogens: a review. Int J Food Microbiol 2013; 167:310-321.
98. Orsi RH, den Bakker HC, Wiedmann M. Listeria monocytogenes lineages: Genomics, evolution, ecology, and phenotypic characteristics. Int J Med Microbiol 2011; 301:79-96.
99. Cruz CD, Pitman AR, Harrow SA, Fletcher GC. Listeria monocytogenes associated with New Zealand seafood production and clinical cases: unique sequence types, truncated InlA and attenuated invasiveness. Appl Environ Microbiol 2013:AEM. 03305-03313.
100. Longhi C, Maffeo A, Penta M, Petrone G, Seganti L, Conte M. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in Italian‐style soft cheeses. J Appl Microbiol 2003; 94:879-885.
101. Gasanov U, Hughes D, Hansbro PM. Methods for the isolation and identification of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes: a review. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2005; 29:851-875.
102. Jadhav S, Bhave M, Palombo EA. Methods used for the detection and subtyping of Listeria monocytogenes. J Microbiol Methods. 2012; 88:327-341.
103. Ragon M, Wirth T, Hollandt F, Lavenir R, Lecuit M, Le Monnier A, et al. A new perspective on Listeria monocytogenes evolution. PLoS Pathog. 2008; 4:e1000146.
104. Zhang W, Jayarao BM, Knabel SJ. Multi-virulence-locus sequence typing of Listeria monocytogenes. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004; 70:913-920.
105. Chenal-Francisque V, Diancourt L, Cantinelli T, Passet V, Tran-Hykes C, Bracq-Dieye H, et al. Optimized Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis assay and its complementarity with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing for Listeria monocytogenes clone identification and surveillance. J Clin Microbiol 2013; 51:1868-1880.
106. Saulo AA. Ready-to-eat foods and listeriosis. Food Safety Technol 2005, 14: 1-2.
107. Gilmour MW, Graham M, Van Domselaar G, Tyler S, Kent H, Trout-Yakel KM, et al. High-throughput genome sequencing of two Listeria monocytogenes clinical isolates during a large foodborne outbreak. BMC Genomics 2010; 11:120.
108. US Food and Drug Administration. 2014. Whole genome sequencing helps FDA identify dangerous bacteria. US Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD: http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm397287.htm.
109. Moshtaghi H, Mohamadpour AA. Incidence of Listeria spp. in raw milk in Shahrekord, Iran. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2007; 4:107-110.
110. Akya A, Najafi F, Moradi J, Mohebi Z, Adabagher S. Prevalence of food contamination with Listeria spp. in Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran/Prevalence de la contamination alimentaire par Listeria spp. a Kermanshah (Republique islamique d’Iran). East Mediterr Health J 2013; 19:474.
111. Dehkordi FS, Barati S, Momtaz H, Ahari SNH, Dehkordi SN. Comparison of shedding, and antibiotic resistance properties of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from milk, feces, urine, and vaginal secretion of Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo, and Camel species in Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2013; 6:284-294.
112. Moosavy M-H, Esmaeili S, Mostafavi E, Amiri FB. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from milks used for Iranian traditional cheese in Lighvan cheese factories. Ann Agric Environ Med 2014; 21.
113. Lotfollahi L, Pournajaf A, Irajian G, Nowrouzi J. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR4)-based detection of hly and plc-A genes in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from dairy and meat products in Iran. Afr J Microbiol Res 2014; 8:1098-1101.
114. Bahador A, Kalani BS, Valian F, Irajian G, Lotfollahi L. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from dairy and meat products. Avicenna J Clin Microbiol Infect 2015; 2.
115. Mashak Z, Zabihi A, Sodagari H, Noori N, Akhondzadeh Basti A. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in different kinds of meat in Tehran province, Iran. Brit Food J 2015; 117:109-116.