Determination of antimicrobial effect of protamine by transmission electron microscopy and SDS PAGE on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from diabetic foot infection

Document Type : Short Communication


1 Department of Pathobiology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

2 Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

3 Department of Microbiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada,

4 PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi, Pakistan

5 Departmet of Clinical Microbiology & Immunology, Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education, Karachi, Pakistan

6 Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

7 Islamic International University, Islamabad


Objective(s): Diabetic foot infection is one of the major complications of diabetes leading to lower limb amputations. Isolation and identification of bacteria causing diabetic foot infection, determination of antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial potential of protamine by electron microscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis, arethe aims of this study.
Materials and Methods: 285 pus samples from diabetic foot infection patients were collected from different hospitals of Karachi and Capital Health Hospital, Halifax, Canada. Clinical history of each patient was recorded. Bacterial isolates were cultured on appropriate media; identification was done by morphology, cultural and biochemical tests. Effect of protamine against multi drug resistant strains of Pseudomona aeruginosa was checked by minimum inhibitory concentration in 96 well micro-titer plates. The isolates were grown in bactericidal concentration of protamine on plates to isolate mutants. Effect of protamine on protein expression was checked by SDS- PAGE and ultra-structural morphological changes by transmission electron microscopy.
Results: Results indicated prevalence of foot infection as 92% in diabetic patients. Major bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus 65 (23%), P. aeruginosa 80 (28.1%), Klebsiella spp. 37 (13%), Proteus mirabilis 79 (27.7%), and Escherichia coli 24 (12%). These isolates were highly resistant to different antibiotics. MIC value of protamine was 500 µg/ml against P. aeruginosa. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that protamine can suppress expression of various virulence proteins and electron micrographs indicated condensation of cytoplasm and accumulation of protamine in cytoplasm without damaging the cell membrane.
Conclusion: P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were the major isolates expressing multi-drug resistance and protamine sulfate represented good antimicrobial potential.


Main Subjects

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