Insights into role of microRNAs in cardiac development, cardiac diseases, and developing novel therapies

Document Type : Review Article


1 Cardiogenetic Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical, and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Objective(s): MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a subfamily of small noncoding RNAs that play a variety of roles in regulating gene expression in nearly all organisms. They affect different biological pathways by post-transcriptionally regulating mRNAs. Aside from miRNAs’  role in maintaining cellular homeostasis, their perturbation is related to several pathologic states and diseases. Cardiovascular disorders are considered some of the most mortal multifactorial diseases that are caused by the deregulation of network of genes and effects of environmental factors. In this review, we discuss the role of miRNAs  in cardiac homeostasis and malfunctions.
Materials and Methods: We reviewed published research on association and role of miRNAs  in cardiac development and diseases and investigated the possible links between regulatory miRNAs  and different cardiac disorders.
Results: Research shows that manipulating miRNAs expression affects the integrity and functionality of the cardiovascular system. Moreover, deregulation of miRNAs, is observed in many cardiac diseases. These findings intensify the pivotal role of miRNAs in the development and specific pathological disorders of the cardiovascular system.
Conclusion: In this review, we summarized the latest findings on the involvement of miRNAs in cardiac development, and continued by their role in congenital heart diseases and rheumatic heart disease, which are some of the leading causes of infant death and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Considering the significance of miRNAs in cardiac homeostasis and malfunctions, they are considered as promising therapeutic targets in cardiovascular diseases.


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