Therapy with new generation of biodegradable and bioconjugate 3D printed artificial gastrointestinal lumen

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr/Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 Mechanical Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa, TRNC, Via Mersin 10 Turkey

3 Department of Applied Researches, Chemical, Petroleum & Polymer Engineering Research Center, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

4 Department of Chemical Engineering, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

5 Metabolic Liver Disease Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

6 Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

7 Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

8 New Technologies Research Center, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


Objective(s): Many patients die due to vascular, gastrointestinal lumen problems, and coronary heart diseases. Synthetic vessels that are made of biodegradable-nanofiber polymers have significant properties such as proper biodegradability and efficient physical properties such as high strength and flexibility. Some of the best options for supporting cells in soft tissue engineering and design are applications of thermoplastic polyurethane polymer in the venous tissue. In this study, the first nanoparticle-reinforced polymeric artificial prosthesis was designed and tested to be used in the human body.
Materials and Methods: In this study, artificial gastrointestinal lumen were fabricated and prepared using a 3D printer. To improve cell adhesion, wettability properties and mechanical stability of elastin biopolymer with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as well as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were prepared as separate filaments. MNPs were made in 5–7 mm sizes and then examined for mechanical, biological, and hyperthermia properties. Then, the obtained results of the gastrointestinal lumen were simulated using the Abaqus software package with a three-branch. The results were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology and phase analysis.
Results: The obtained results of the designed vessels showed remarkable improvement in mechanical properties of the SWCNT vessels and hyperthermia properties of the vessels containing the MNPs. The results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis showed that the artificial vessels had lower shear stress at the output.
Conclusion: Five-mm MNP containing vessels showed noticeable chemical and biological properties along with ideal magnetic results in the treatment of thrombosis and vascular obstruction.


1. Williamson IA, Arnold JW, Samsa LA, Gaynor L, DiSalvo M, Cocchiaro JL, et al. A high-throughput organoid microinjection platform to study gastrointestinal microbiota and luminal physiology. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018; 6:301-319.
2. Morrison RJ, Hollister SJ, Niedner MF, Mahani MG, Park AH, Mehta DK, et al. Mitigation of tracheobronchomalacia with 3D-printed personalized medical devices in pediatric patients. Sci Transl Med 2015; 7:1-23.
3. Lin M, Firoozi N, Tsai CT, Wallace MB, Kang Y. 3D-printed flexible polymer stents for potential applications in inoperable esophageal malignancies. Acta Biomater 2019; 83:119-129.
4. Cui Z, Wang Z, Ye G, Zhang C, Wu G, Lv J. A novel three-dimensional printed guiding device for electrode implantation of sacral neuromodulation. Colorectal Dis 2018; 20:26-29.
5. Sahmani S, Shahali M, Nejad MG, Khandan A, Aghdam MM, Saber-Samandari S. Effect of copper oxide nanoparticles on electrical conductivity and cell viability of calcium phosphate scaffolds with improved mechanical strength for bone tissue engineering. Eur Phys J Plus 2019; 134:1-7.
6. Heydary HA, Karamian E, Poorazizi E, Heydaripour J, Khandan A. Electrospun of polymer/bioceramic nanocomposite as a new soft tissue for biomedical applications. J Asian Ceram Soc 2015; 3:417-425.
7. Kordjamshidi A, Saber-Samandari S, Nejad MG, Khandan A. Preparation of novel porous calcium silicate scaffold loaded by celecoxib drug using freeze drying technique: Fabrication, characterization and simulation. Ceram Int 2019; 45:14126-14135.
8. Khandan A, Jazayeri H, Fahmy MD, Razavi M. Hydrogels: types, structure, properties, and applications. Biomat Tiss Eng 2017; 4:143-169.
9. Sahmani S, Saber-Samandari S, Khandan A, Aghdam MM. Influence of MgO nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of coated hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffolds produced via space holder technique: fabrication, characterization and simulation. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2019; 95:76-88.
10. Farazin A, Aghadavoudi F, Motififard M, Saber-Samandari S, Khandan A. Nanostructure, molecular dynamics simulation and mechanical performance of PCL membranes reinforced with antibacterial nanoparticles. J Appl Comput Mech 2020; 27:1-27.
11. Khandan A, Saber-Samandari S, Telloo M, Kazeroni ZS, Esmaeili S, Sheikhbahaei E, et al. A mitral heart valve prototype using sustainable polyurethane polymer: fabricated by 3D bioprinter, tested by molecular dynamics simulation. AJME 2020:1-19
12. Kamarian S, Bodaghi M, Isfahani RB, Shakeri M, Yas MH. Influence of carbon nanotubes on thermal expansion coefficient and thermal buckling of polymer composite plates: experimental and numerical investigations. Mech Based Des Struct 2019:1-6.
13. Ayatollahi MR, Barbaz Isfahani R, Moghimi Monfared R. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotube and nanosilica on tensile properties of woven carbon fabric-reinforced epoxy composites fabricated using VARIM. J Compos Mater 2017; 51:4177-4188.
14. Ayatollahi MR, Moghimi Monfared R, Barbaz Isfahani R. Experimental investigation on tribological properties of carbon fabric composites: effects of carbon nanotubes and nano-silica. Proc Inst Mech 2019; 233:874-884.
15. Moeini M, Barbaz Isfahani R, Saber-Samandari S, Aghdam MM. Molecular dynamics simulations of the effect of temperature and strain rate on mechanical properties of graphene–epoxy nanocomposites. Mol Simul 2020; 46:476-486.
16. Maghsoudlou MA, Isfahani RB, Saber-Samandari S, Sadighi M. Effect of interphase, curvature and agglomeration of SWCNTs on mechanical properties of polymer-based nanocomposites: experimental and numerical investigations. Compos 2019; 75:107119-107128.
17. Monfared RM, Ayatollahi MR, Isfahani RB. Synergistic effects of hybrid MWCNT/nanosilica on the tensile and tribological properties of woven carbon fabric epoxy composites. Theor Appl Fract 2018; 6:272-284.
18. Saber-Samandari S, Saber-Samandari S, Joneidi-Yekta H, Mohseni M. Adsorption of anionic and cationic dyes from aqueous solution using gelatin-based magnetic nanocomposite beads comprising carboxylic acid functionalized carbon nanotube. Chem.Eng J 2017; 308:1133-1144.
19. Aghdam HA, Sheikhbahaei E, Hajihashemi H, Kazemi D, Andalib A. The impacts of internal versus external fixation for tibial fractures with simultaneous acute compartment syndrome. European J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2019; 29:183-187.
20. Nasri P, Adibmajlesi Z, Rahimi H, Saneian H, Famouri F, Khademian M, et al. Gastrointestinal manifestations in children with kawasaki disease in isfahan, Iran. Arch Pediatr Infect Dis 2020; 30:8-12.
21. Famouri F, Emadoleslami MS, Riahi R, Saneian H, Nasri P. The sensitivity of H. Pylori in gastric tissue samples of children and adolescents to various antibiotics in center of Iran. Int J Pediatr 2018; 6:8685-8696.
22. Seyfi J, Panahi-Sarmad M, OraeiGhodousi A, Goodarzi V, Khonakdar HA, Asefnejad A, et al. Antibacterial superhydrophobic polyvinyl chloride surfaces via the improved phase separation process using silver phosphate nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B 2019; 183:110438-110446.
23. Zhao SZ, Ariff B, Long Q, Hughes AD, Thom SA, Stanton AV, et al. Inter-individual variations in wall shear stress and mechanical stress distributions at the carotid artery bifurcation of healthy humans. J Biomechem 2002; 35:1367-1377.
24. Shojaie S, Rostamian M, Samadi A, Alvani MA, Khonakdar HA, Goodarzi V, et al. Electrospun electroactive nanofibers of gelatin-oligoaniline/Poly (vinyl alcohol) templates for architecting of cardiac tissue with on-demand drug release. Polym Adv Technol 2019; 30:1473-1483.
25. Monshi M, Esmaeili S, Kolooshani A, Moghadas BK, Saber-Samandari S, Khandan A. A novel three-dimensional printing of electroconductive scaffolds for bone cancer therapy application. Nanomed J 2020; 7:138-148.
26. Esmaeili S, Shahali M, Kordjamshidi A, Torkpoor Z, Namdari F, Samandari SS, et al. Khandan A. An artificial blood vessel fabricated by 3D printing for pharmaceutical application. Nanomed J 2019; 6:183-194.
27. Saber-Samandari S, Mohammadi-Aghdam M, Saber-Samandari S. A novel magnetic bifunctional nanocomposite scaffold for photothermal therapy and tissue engineering. Int J Biol Macromol 2019; 138:810-818.
28. Foroutan S, Hashemian M, Khandan A. A novel porous graphene scaffold prepared using Freeze-drying technique for orthopedic approaches: Fabrication and buckling simulation using GDQ method. J Mater Sci 2020; 17:62-76.
29. Salmani MM, Hashemian M, Yekta HJ, Nejad MG, Saber-Samandari S, Khandan A. Synergic effects of magnetic nanoparticles on hyperthermia-based therapy and controlled drug delivery for bone substitute application. J Supercond Nov Magn 2020:2809–2820.
30. Raisi A, Asefnejad A, Shahali M, Doozandeh Z, Kamyab Moghadas B, Saber-Samandari S, et al. A soft tissue fabricated using freeze-drying technique with carboxymethyl chitosan and nanoparticles for promoting effects on wound healing. J Nanoanalysis 2020; 7.
31. Saber-Samandari S, Gross KA. Nano-indentation on amorphous calcium phosphate splats: Effect of droplet size on mechanical properties. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2012; 16:29-37.
32. Abd-Khorsand S, Saber-Samandari S, Saber-Samandari S. Development of nanocomposite scaffolds based on TiO2 doped in grafted chitosan/hydroxyapatite by freeze drying method and evaluation of biocompatibility. Int J Biol Macromol 2017; 101:51-58.
33. Biazar E, Beitollahi A, Rezayat SM, Forati T, Asefnejad A, Rahimi M, et al. Effect of the mechanical activation on size reduction of crystalline acetaminophen drug particles. Int J Nanomed 2009; 4:283-287.
34. Panahi-Sarmad M, Goodarzi V, Amirkiai A, Noroozi M, Abrisham M, Dehghan P, et al. Programing polyurethane with systematic presence of graphene-oxide (GO) and reduced graphene-oxide (rGO) platelets for adjusting of heat-actuated shape memory properties. Eur Polym J 2019; 118:619-632.
35. Bagher Z, Ehterami A, Safdel MH, Khastar H, Semiari H, Asefnejad A, et al. Wound healing with alginate/chitosan hydrogel containing hesperidin in rat model. J Drug Deliv Sci Tec 2020; 55:101379-101413.
36. Janfada A, Asefnejad A, Khorasani MT, Joupari MD. Reinforcement of electrospun polycaprolacton scaffold using KIT-6 to improve mechanical and biological performance. Polym Test 2020; 84:106391-106401.
37. Ghasemi M, Nejad MG, Bagzibagli K. Knowledge management orientation: an innovative perspective to hospital management Iran J Public Health 2017; 46:1639-1657.
38. Ghadirinejad M, Atasoylu E, Izbirak G, Ghasemi M. A stochastic model for the ethanol pharmacokinetics. Iran J Public Health 2016; 45:1170-1189.
39. Moghadas BK, Akbarzadeh A, Azadi M, Aghili A, Rad AS, Hallajian S. The morphological properties and biocompatibility studies of synthesized nanocomposite foam from modified polyethersulfone/graphene oxide using supercritical CO2. J Macromol Sci 2020; 57:451-460.
40. Shirani K, Sheikhbahaei E, Torkpour Z, Nejad MG, Moghadas BK, Ghasemi M, et al. A narrative review of COVID-19: The new pandemic disease. Iran. J Med Sci 2020; 45:233-277.
41. Malekzadeh M, Abbasi-Rad S, Shahgholi M, Naghdi P, Hoseini MS, Yazdi NA, et al. Design and validation of synchronous QCT calibration phantom: practical methodology. J Med Imaging Radiat sci 2019; 50:157-162.
42. Abbasi-Rad S, Akbari A, Malekzadeh M, Shahgholi M, Arabalibeik H, Rad HS. Quantifying cortical bone free water using short echo time (STE-MRI) at 1.5 T. Magn Reson Imaging 2020; 71:17-24.
43. Fada R, Farhadi Babadi N, Azimi R, Karimian M, Shahgholi M. Mechanical properties improvement and bone regeneration of calcium phosphate bone cement, Polymethyl methacrylate and glass ionomer. J  Nanoanalysis 2020; 7.
44. Bahadori M, Yaghoubi M, Haghgoshyie E, Ghasemi M, Hasanpoor E. Patients’ and physicians’ perspectives and experiences on the quality of medical consultations: a qualitative study. Int J Evid Based Healthc 2020; 18:247-255.
45. Maghsoudlou MA, Nassireslami E, Saber-Samandari S, Khandan A. Bone regeneration using bio-nanocomposite tissue reinforced with bioactive nanoparticles for femoral defect applications in medicine. Avicenna J Med Biotechnol. 2020; 12:68-90.
46. Ozada N, Yazdi SG, Khandan A, Karimzadeh M. A brief review of reverse shoulder prosthesis: arthroplasty, complications, revisions, and development. Trauma Mon 2018; 23: 58163-58173.
47. Roustazadeh D, Aghadavoudi F, Khandan A. A synergic effect of CNT/Al2O3 reinforcements on multiscale epoxy-based glass fiber composite: fabrication and molecular dynamics modeling. Mol Simulat 2020; 46:1308-1319.
48. Salmani MM, Hashemian M, Khandan A. Therapeutic effect of magnetic nanoparticles on calcium silicate bioceramic in alternating field for biomedical application. Ceram Int 2020; 46:27299-27307.
49. Piard C, Baker H, Kamalitdinov T, Fisher J. Bioprinted osteon-like scaffolds enhance in vivo neovascularization. Biofabrication 2019; 11:025013-025035.
50. Oveissi S, Toghraie DS, Eftekhari SA. Investigation on the effect of axially moving carbon nanotube, nanoflow, and Knudsen number on the vibrational behavior of the system. Int J Fluid Mech Res 2018; 44:171-186.
51. Mohammadzadeh Rad M, Saber-Samandari S, Sadighi M, Tayebi L, Mohammadi Aghdam M, Khandan A. Macro-and micromechanical modelling of HA-Elastin scaffold fabricated using freeze drying technique. J Nanoanalysis 2020; 7.
52. Nassireslami E, Motififard M, Kamyab Moghadas B, Hami Z, Jasemi A, Lachiyani A, et al. Potential of magnetite nanoparticles with biopolymers loaded with gentamicin drug for bone cancer treatment. J Nanoanalysis 2020; 7.
53. Farazin A, Aghdam HA, Motififard M, Aghadavoudi F, Kordjamshidi A, Saber-Samandari S, et al. A polycaprolactone bio-nanocomposite bone substitute fabricated for femoral fracture approaches: molecular dynamic and micro-mechanical investigation. J Nanoanalysis 2019; 6:1-14.
54. Eftekhari SA. A differential quadrature procedure for linear and nonlinear steady state vibrations of infinite beams traversed by a moving point load. Meccanica 2016; 51:2417-2434.
55. Eftekhari SA. Pressure-based and potential-based mixed Ritz-differential quadrature formulations for free and forced vibration of Timoshenko beams in contact with fluid. Meccanica 2016; 51:179-210.
56. Daniali OA, Toghraie D, Eftekhari SA. Thermo-hydraulic and economic optimization of Iranol refinery oil heat exchanger with Copper oxide nanoparticles using MOMBO. Physica A 2020; 540:123010-123056.