Evaluation of the Relationship between the Incubation Time and Carotenoid Production in Rhodotorula Slooffiae and R. Mucilaginosa Isolated from Leather Tanning Wastewater


Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran



Carotenoids which are naturally synthesized by fungi such as yeasts can act as an antioxidant which is closely related to their ability to decrease the risk of a variety of degenerative diseases. In recent years, the increase of demand for carotenoids obtained from natural sources has promoted major efforts to improve carotenoid production from biological sources such as pigmented yeasts. The aim of this study was comparing incubation time and carotenoid production in Rhodotorula slooffiae and R. mucilaginosa isolated from leather tanning wastewater.
Materials and Methods:
To isolate the carotenoid pigment, cells were suspended in acetone and broken using a homogenizer, followed by centrifugation and separation of supernatant. In order to study the effect of incubation time, samples were held at 30 С in a shaker at 150 rpm for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hr. For analytical evaluation, pigments were measured spectrophotometrically at 450 nm using the extinction coefficient E1%450=2500.
The results showed that the content of total carotenoid in R. slooffiae was the highest when samples were incubated for 72 hr. Overall, R. mucilaginosa had more potential to produce carotenoid. The best incubation periods for R. slooffiae and R. mucilaginosa were 72 hr and 48 hr, respectively.
It seemed that the maximum rate of total carotenoid was not directly associated with the maximum amount of cell biomass and the type of carotenoid and their relative amount may vary depending on genus of yeast.


1. Palace VP, Khaper N, Qin Q, Singal PK. Antioxidant potentials of vitamin A and carotenoids and their relevance to heart disease. Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 26:746-761.
2. Motalleb G, Hanachi P, Kua SH, Fauziah O, Asmah R. Evaluation of phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in Berberis vulgaris fruit extract. J Biol Sci 2005; 5:648-653.
3. Astorg P. Food Carotenoids and cancer prevention, An overview of current research. Trends Food Sci Technol 1997; 8:406-413.
4. Bendich A. Recent advances in clinical research involving carotenoids. Pure Appl Chem 1994; 66:1017-1024.
Carotenoid Production in R. Slooffiae and R. Mucilaginosa Naghavi et al
Iran J Basic Med Sci, Vol. 16, No. 10, Oct 2013
5. Krinsky NI. Carotenoid as antioxidants. Nutrition 2001; 17:815-817.
6. Frengova G, Simova E, Pavlova K, Beshlova D. Formation of carotenoids by Rhodotorula glutinis in Whey ultrafiltrate. Biotechnol Bioeng 1994; 44:888-894.
7. Sakaki H, Nochide H, Nakanishi T, Miki W, Fugita T, Komemushi S. Effect of ulture condition on the Biosynthesis of carotenoids in Rhodotorula glutinis. Seibutsu Kogaku Kaishi 1999; 77:55-59.
8. Sympson KI, Nakayama TOM, Chichester CO. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J Bacteriol 1964; 88:1688-1694.
9. Buzzini P. An optimization study of carotenoid production by Rhodotorula glutinis DBVPG 3853 from substrates containing concentrated rectified grape must as the sole carbohydrate source. J Indust Microbiol Biotech 2000; 24:41-45.
10. Costa I, Martelli HL, Dasilva IM, Pomeroy D. ro tion of β-carotene by a Rhodotorula strain. Biotechnol Lett 1987; 9:373-375.
11. Martin AM, Chun L, Patel TR. Growth parameters for the yeast Rhodotorula slooffiae grown in peat extracts. J Ferm Bioeng 1993; 76:321–325.
12. Parekh S, Vinci VA, Strobel RJ. Improvement of micobial strains and fermentation processes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2000; 54:287-301.
13. Barnett JA. Yeasts: Characterization and identification. Cambridge: 2000.
14. Davies BH. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Pigments: New York
: Academic;1976.
15. Frengova GI, Simova ED, Beshkova DM. Improvement of carotenoid-synthesizing yeast Rhodotorula slooffiae by chemical mutagenesis. Z Naturforsch 2004; 59:99-103.
16. Maldonade IR, Scamparini ARP, Rodriguez-Amaya
DB. Selection and characterization of carotenoid-producing yeasts from Campinas region, brazil. Braz J Microbiol 2007; 38:65-70.
17. Perrier V, Dubreucq E, Gayzy P. Fatty acid and carotenoid composition of Rhodotorula strains. Arch Microbiol 1995; 164:173-179.
18. Aksu z, Tugba, Errn, A. Carotenoid production by the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa: Use of agricultural wastes as carbon source. Process Biochem 2005; 40:2985-2991.
19. Libkind D, Van Broock, M. Biomass and carotenoid pigment production by Patagonian native yeasts. Folia Microbiol [Praha] 2004; 49:19-25.
20. Buzzini PMA, Gaetani M, Turchetti B, Pagnoni UM, Davoli P. Optimization of carotenoid production by Rhodotorula graminis DBVPG 7021as a function of trace element concentration by means of response surface analysis. Enzyme Microbial Technol 2005; 36:687-692.
21. Fang TI, Chiou TY. Optimization of cultivation and astaxanthin production by a mutant of red yeast. J Ferment Bioeng 1993; 75:466-469.
22. Johnson EA, An GH. Astaxanthin from microbial sources. Crit Rev Biotechnol 1991; 11:297-326.
23. Voaides C, Dima, R. Effect of carbon source on carotenoid production by Rhodotorula sp. Arch Zootechn 2011;14:75-83.
24. An GH, Schuman DB, Johnson EA. Isolation of Phaffia Rhodozyma Mutants with increased Astaxanthin content. Appl Environ Microbiol 1989; 55:116-124.
25. Goodwin TW. Carotenoids in fungi and non-photosynthetic bacteria. Prog Indusr Microbiol 1972; 11:29-88.
26. Yimyoo T, Yongmanitchai W, Limtong S. carotenoid production by Rhodosporidium paludigenim DMKU3-LPK4 using glycerol as the carbon source. Kasetsart J [Nat Sci] 2011; 45:90-100.