Description of the calf thymus DNA-malathion complex behavior by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques: EMF at low and high frequency approaches

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

2 Medical Chemistry Department, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Objective(s): Small molecules can bind to DNA via covalent or non-covalent interactions, which results in altering or inhibiting the function of DNA. Thus, understanding the interaction patterns of medicines or other small molecules can be very crucial. In this study, the interaction between malathion and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA), in the absence and presence of electromagnetic field (EMF) at low and high frequencies, was investigated through various spectroscopies and viscosity measurements.
Materials and Methods: The interaction studies were performed by means of absorbance, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosity, thermal melting, and molecular modeling techniques.
Results: The fluorescence intensity of the ctDNA-malathion complex in the presence of EMF, has revealed quenching of fluorescence emission curves. The dynamic interaction and RLS studies have implied the changes in ctDNA-malathion complex throughout the presence of EMF which suggested that hydrophobic forces play the main role in the binding. Studies have revealed that malathion does not have any effect on binding ethidium bromide to ctDNA, which signifies the groove binding. The viscosity of ctDNA increased as the malathion concentration was enlarged. The circular dichroism technique suggested that the ellipticity values of the ctDNA-malathion complex have not increased with enhancing the malathion concentration. Molecular docking and dynamics studies have indicated a potent electrostatic interaction between ctDNA and malathion in the groove binding site.  
Conclusion: The results of spectroscopic studies reinforced a potent interaction between malathion and ctDNA in the absence and presence of EMF which can help us for further pharmaceutical drug discoveries.


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