1. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004; 27:1047-1053.
2. Agbaje I M, Rogers D A, McVicar C M, McClure N, Atkinson A B, Mallidis C, et al. Insulin dependant diabetes mellitus: implications for male reproductive function. Hum Reprod 2007; 22:1871-1877.
3. Agarwal A, Mulgund A, Hamada A, Chyatte M R. A unique view on male infertility around the globe. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2015; 13:37-46.
4. Ombelet W, Cooke I, Dyer S, Serour G, Devroey P. Infertility and the provision of infertility medical services in developing countries. Hum Reprod Update 2008; 14:605-621.
5. Alves M G, Martins A D, Rato L, Moreira P I, Socorro S, Oliveira P F. Molecular mechanisms beyond glucose transport in diabetes-related male infertility. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2013; 1832:626-635.
6. Kuiri-Hänninen T, Sankilampi U, Dunkel L. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in infancy: Minipuberty. Horm Res Paediatr 2014; 82:73-80.
7. Thompson E L, Patterson M, Murphy K G, Smith K L, Dhillo W S, Todd J F, et al. Central and peripheral administration of kisspeptin-10 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. J Neuroendocrinol 2004; 16:850-858.
8. True C, Kirigiti M A, Kievit P, Grove K L, Smith M S. Leptin is not the critical signal for kisspeptin or luteinising hormone restoration during exit from negative energy balance. J Neuroendocrinol 2011; 23:1099-1112.
9. Abbara A, Eng P C, Phylactou M, Clarke S A, Mills E, Chia G, et al. Kisspeptin-54 accurately identifies hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal dysfunction in men with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Neuroendocrinol 2020; 111:1176-1186.
10. Mantzoros C S, Magkos F, Brinkoetter M, Sienkiewicz E, Dardeno T A, Kim S Y, et al. Leptin in human physiology and pathophysiology. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2011; 301:567-584.
11. Garcia-Galiano D, Allen S J, Elias C F. Role of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin in reproductive control. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2014; 19:141-149.
12. Heydari H, Ghiasi R, Hamidian G, Ghaderpour S, Keyhanmanesh R. Voluntary exercise improves sperm parameters in high fat diet receiving rats through alteration in testicular oxidative stress, mir-34a/SIRT1/p53 and apoptosis. Horm Mol Biol Clin Invest 2021; 42:253-263 .
13. Gaderpour S, Ghiasi R, Hamidian G, Heydari H, Keyhanmanesh R. Voluntary exercise improves spermatogenesis and testicular apoptosis in type 2 diabetic rats through alteration in oxidative stress and mir-34a/SIRT1/p53 pathway. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021; 24:1-8.
14. Ghiasi R, Naderi R, Sheervalilou R, Alipour M R. Swimming training by affecting the pancreatic Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and oxidative stress, improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic male rats. Horm Mol Biol Clin Invest 2019; 40:1-12.
15. Shing C M, Fassett R G, Peake J M, Coombes J S. Voluntary exercise decreases atherosclerosis in nephrectomised ApoE knockout mice. PLoS One 2015; 10:1-12.
16. Salehi M S, Namavar M R, Jafarzadeh-Shirazi M R, Rahmanifar F, Tamadon A. A simple method for isolation of the anteroventral periventricular and arcuate nuclei of the rat hypothalamus. J Anat 2012; 7:48-51.
17.Cao D, Ma X, Zhang W J, Xie Z. Dissection and coronal slice preparation of developing mouse pituitary gland. J Vis Exp 2017; 16:1-5.
18. Keyhanmanesh R, Hamidian G, Alipour M, Oghbaei H. Beneficial treatment effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on testicular injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Reprod Biomed Online 2019; 38:857-871.
19. Aziz N, Saleh R A, Sharma R K, Lewis-Jones I, Esfandiari N, Thomas Jr AJ, et al. Novel association between sperm reactive oxygen species production, sperm morphological defects, and the sperm deformity index. Fertil Steril 2004; 81:349-354.
20. Aziz N, Said T, Paasch U, Agarwal A. The relationship between human sperm apoptosis, morphology and the sperm deformity index. Hum Reprod 2007; 22:1413-1419.
21. Oskuye Z, Bavil F, Hamidian G, Mehri K, Qadiri A, Ahmadi M, et al. Troxerutin affects the male fertility in prepubertal type 1 diabetic male rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2019; 22:197-205.
22. Dudek M, Kołodziejski P, Pruszyńska-Oszmałek E, Sassek M, Ziarniak K, Nowak K, et al. Effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes on Kiss1 and GPR54 expression in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis and peripheral organs (fat, pancreas and liver) in male rats. Neuropeptides 2016; 56:41-49.
23. Cooper T G. Reply: WHO reference values for human semen. Hum Reprod Update 2010; 16:559-559.
24. Guzick D S, Overstreet J W, Factor-Litvak P, Brazil C K, Nakajima S T, Coutifaris C, et al. Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1388-1393.
25. Maneesh M, Jayalekshmi H. Role of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants on pathophysiology of male reproduction. Indian J Clin Biochem 2006; 21:80-89.
26. Agarwal A, Saleh R A, Bedaiwy M A. Role of reactive oxygen species in the pathophysiology of human reproduction. Fertil Steril 2003; 79:829-843.
27. Lavranos G, Balla M, Tzortzopoulou A, Syriou V, Angelopoulou R. Investigating ROS sources in male infertility: a common end for numerous pathways. Reprod Toxicol 2012; 34:298-307.
28. Guthrie H D, Welch G R. Effects of reactive oxygen species on sperm function. Theriogenol 2012; 78:1700-1708.
29. Oghbaei H, Alipour M, Hamidian G, Ahmadi M, Ghorbanzadeh V, Keyhanmanesh R. Two months sodium nitrate supplementation alleviates testicular injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Exp Physiol 2018; 103:1603-1617.
30. Keyhanmanesh R, Hamidian G, Alipour M, Ranjbar M, Oghbaei H. Protective effects of sodium nitrate against testicular apoptosis and spermatogenesis impairments in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Life Sci 2018; 211:63-73.
31. Oghbaei H, Hamidian G, Alipour MR, Alipour S, Keyhanmanesh R. The effect of prolonged dietary sodium nitrate treatment on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and testicular structure and function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Food func 2020; 11:2451-2465.
32. Delfino M, Imbrogno N, Elia J, Capogreco F, Mazzilli F. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in male partners of infertile couples. Minerva Urol Nefrol 2007; 59:131-135.
33. Condorelli R A, La Vignera S, Mongioì L M, Alamo A, Calogero A E. Diabetes mellitus and infertility: different pathophysiological effects in type 1 and type 2 on sperm function. Frontiers endocrinol 2018; 9:268-277.
34. Parastesh M, Heidarianpour A, Bayat M, Saremi A. Effects of resistance training on serum level of reproductive hormones and sperm parameters in type 2 diabetes rats. Majallahi Ilmipizhuhishii Danishgahilumi Pizishki Va Khadamati Bihdashti Darmanii Arak 2016; 19:26-36.
35. Pelliccione F, Verratti V, D’Angeli A, Micillo A, Doria C, Pezzella A, et al. Physical exercise at high altitude is associated with a testicular dysfunction leading to reduced sperm concentration but healthy sperm quality. Fertil Steril 2011; 96:28-33.
36. Vaamonde D, Da Silva-Grigoletto M E, García-Manso J M, Barrera N, Vaamonde-Lemos R. Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men. Eur J Appl Physiol 2012; 112:3267-3273.
37. Dhillo W S, Chaudhri O B, Patterson M, Thompson E L, Murphy K G, Badman M K, et al. Kisspeptin-54 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis in human males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:6609-6615.
38. Navarro V M, Castellano J M, Fernández-Fernández R, Barreiro M L, Roa J, Sanchez-Criado J E, et al. Developmental and hormonally regulated messenger ribonucleic acid expression of KiSS-1 and its putative receptor, GPR54, in rat hypothalamus and potent luteinizing hormone-releasing activity of KiSS-1 peptide. Endocrinol 2004; 145:4565-4574.
39. Asare-Anane H, Ofori E K, Kwao-Zigah G, Ateko R O, Annan B D R T, Adjei A B, et al. Lower circulating kisspeptin and primary hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2019; 2:1-6.
40. Arisha A H, Moustafa A. Potential inhibitory effect of swimming exercise on the Kisspeptin-GnRH signaling pathway in male rats. Theriogenol 2019; 133:87-96.
41. Ghosh D, Das U, Ghosh S, Mallick M, Debnath J. Testicular gametogenic and steroidogenic activities in cyclophosphamide treated rat: a correlative study with testicular oxidative stress. Drug Chem Toxicol 2002; 25:281-292.
42. Manna I, Jana K, Samanta P. Effect of intensive exercise‐induced testicular gametogenic and steroidogenic disorders in mature male Wistar strain rats: a correlative approach to oxidative stress. Acta Physiol Scand 2003; 178:33-40.
43. S du Plessis S, Kashou A, Vaamonde D, Agarwal A. Is there a link between exercise and male factor infertility? Open Reprod Sci J 2011; 3:105-113.
44. Samanta P K, Manna I, Jana K. Effect of L-ascorbic add supplementation on testicular oxidative stress and endocrine disorders in mature male rats exposed to intensive swimming exercise. Reprod Med Biol 2006; 5:145-153.
45.Erdemir F, Atilgan D, Markoc F, Boztepe O, Suha-Parlaktas B, Sahin S. The effect of diet induced obesity on testicular tissue and serum oxidative stress parameters. Actas Urol Esp (English Edition) 2012; 36:153-159.
46. Quennell J H, Howell C S, Roa J, Augustine R A, Grattan D R, Anderson G M. Leptin deficiency and diet-induced obesity reduce hypothalamic kisspeptin expression in mice. Endocrinol 2011; 152:1541-1550.
47.Wauters M, Considine R V, Yudkin J S, Peiffer F, De Leeuw I, Van Gaal L F. Leptin levels in type 2 diabetes: associations with measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Horm Metab Res 2003; 35:92-96.
48. Haskell‐Luevano C, Schaub J W, Andreasen A, Haskell K R, Moore M C, Koerper L M, et al. Voluntary exercise prevents the obese and diabetic metabolic syndrome of the melanocortin‐4 receptor knockout mouse. FASEB J 2009; 23:642-655.
49. Girard I, Rezende E L, Garland Jr T. Leptin levels and body composition of mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity. Physiol Biochem Zool 2007; 80:568-579.
50. Dandona P, Dhindsa S. Update: hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in type 2 diabetes and obesity. Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96:2643-2651.
51. De Gendt K, Swinnen J V, Saunders P T, Schoonjans L, Dewerchin M, Devos A, et al. A sertoli cell-selective knockout of the androgen receptor causes spermatogenic arrest in meiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2004; 101:1327-1332.
52. Dhindsa S, Prabhakar S, Sethi M, Bandyopadhyay A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona P. Frequent occurrence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in type 2 diabetes. Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89:5462-5468.
53. Hackney A. Endurance exercise training and reproductive endocrine dysfunction in men alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Curr pharm des 2001; 7:261-273.
54. Raastad T, Bjøro T, Hallen J. Hormonal responses to high-and moderate-intensity strength exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2000; 82:121-128.
55. Hackney A, Sinning W, Bruot B. Reproductive hormonal profiles of endurance-trained and untrained males. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988; 20:60-65.
56. Chainy G, Samantaray S, Samanta L. Testosterone‐induced changes in testicular antioxidant system. Andrologia 1997; 29:343-349.
57. Powers S K, Ji L L, Leeuwenburgh C. Exercise training-induced alterations in skeletal muscle antioxidant capacity: a brief review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31:987-997.
58. Manna I, Jana K, Samanta P K. Effect of intensive exercise-induced testicular gametogenic and steroidogenic disorders in mature male wistar strain rats: a correlative approach to oxidative stress. Acta Physiol Scand 2003; 178:33-40.
59. Ramzan M H, Ramzan M, Ramzan F, Wahab F, Jillani M, Khan MA, et al. Insight into the serum kisspeptin levels in infertile males. Arch Iran Med 2015; 18:12-17.
60. Agarwal A, Prabakaran S A, Said T M. Prevention of oxidative stress injury to sperm. J Androl 2005; 26:654-660.