Recent advances in development of nano-carriers for immunogene therapy in various complex disorders

Document Type : Review Article


1 Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Golestan University of Medical Science, Gorgan, Iran

2 Nanotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran

4 Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

5 Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad, University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Immunotherapy is a novel preference for the treatment of various complex diseases. Considering the application of varying agents for suppression or activation of the immune system, immunogene therapy was confirmed to stand as a proper alternative for other immunotherapeutic strategies due to its capability in targeting cells with more specificity that leads to controlling the expression of therapeutic genes. This method facilitates the local and single-dose application of most gene therapies that result in the usage of high therapeutic doses with a low risk of systemic side effects while being cost-efficient in long-term administrations. However, the existing barriers between the administration site and cell nucleus limited the clinical uses of genetic materials. These challenges can be overcome through the promising method of exerting non-carriers with high stability, low toxicity/immunogenicity, and simple modifications. In this study, we attempted to review the potential of nanoparticle application throughout the immunogene therapy of different diseases including cancer, microbial diseases, allergies, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and respiratory infections. We included the outline of some challenges and opportunities in regards to the delivery of genetic materials that are based on nano-systems through immunotherapy of these disorders. Next to the promising future of these vectors, more detailed analyses are required to overcome the current limitations in clinical approaches.


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