Influence of ethanolic extract of Allium sativum on TP53 gene and its anticancer potential in N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in male albino rats

Document Type : Original Article


Cancer Research and Infectious Disease Unit, Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos


Objective(s): Cancer is a group of genetic disorders in which the behavior of the cell is disturbed by mutation and other abnormalities thereby posing as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer, highly aggressive with high mortality and incidence rate; and has limited therapeutic options. Most of the conventional cancer chemotherapeutics are associated with undesirable side effects, toxicity, chemoresistance, and high treatment cost, driving the need for a safer and more effective treatment alternative. Medicinal plants and herbs have shown very promising anti-cancer properties which are important for cancer treatment due to their multiple chemical compounds. 
Materials and Methods:  Qualitative screening of the ethanolic extractof Allium sativum was conducted showing the different phytochemicalspresent. The levels of liver function and hematological parameters wasdetermined via spectrophotometric analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction techniquewas used to assess the gene patterns of Tumorsuppressor p53 (TP53).
Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed that Allium sativum has properties that antagonize the proliferating process of carcinogenesis in the liver. The NDEA-group showed significant distortion in the liver architecture characterized by vascular congestion of blood sinusoids, cirrhosis, and congestive hepatopathy while the treated groups showed a reduction in the abnormalities and malignant formation. The treated group showed a significant (P<0.05) increase and restored activities of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bilirubin and hematological parameters (RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets). TP53 gene amplification was significantly (P<0.05) visible after treatment. 
Conclusion: Ethanolic plant extract of A. sativum demonstrates its anticancer properties by improving the liver architecture, increasing the antioxidant defense systems, and activation of the tumor suppressor (TP53) gene. Garlic extract has anti-proliferating properties and can be used as an alternative mode of treatment and prevention for hepatocellular carcinoma.


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