Anti-tumor effects of PEGylated-nanoliposomes containing ginger extract in colorectal cancer-bearing mice

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Immunology & Microbiology, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

2 Nanotechnology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Cardiovascular Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran

5 Molecular and Medicine Research Center, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

6 Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center (TCMRC), Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran



Objective(s): This study aimed to develop a nanoliposomal formulation containing ginger ethanolic extract with a higher therapeutic effect for cancer treatment. 
Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to prepare PEGylated nanoliposomal ginger through the thin film hydration method plus extrusion. Physicochemical characteristics were evaluated, and the toxicity of the prepared liposomes was assessed using the MTT assay. In addition, tumor size was monitored in colorectal cancer-bearing mice. Also, the anticancer effects of liposomal ginger were evaluated by gene expression assay of Bax and Bcl-2 and cytokines including TNF-α, TGF-β, and IFN-γ by Real-time PCR. Also, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg cells) were counted in spleen and tumor tissue by flow cytometry assay.
Results: The nanoliposomes’ particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) were 94.95 nm and 0.246 nm, respectively. High encapsulation capacity (80 %) confirmed the technique’s efficiency, and the release rate of the extract was 85% at pH 6.5. In addition, this study showed that liposomal ginger at 100 mg/kg/day enhanced the expression of Bax (P<0.05) and IFN-γ (P<0.01) compared with ginger extract in the mouse model. Also, the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and CTLs cell count in tumor tissue showed a significant increase in the LipGin group compared with the Gin group (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Results indicated that the liposomal ginger enhanced the antitumor activity; therefore, the prepared liposomal ginger can be used in future clinical trials.


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