Ameliorating effect of 6-week swimming exercise on mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by reducing fetuin-A and increasing AMPK & NAD⁺ levels in liver tissue

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Objective(s): Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting sensory and motor function in the central nervous system. Physical activities in the prevention and treatment of such conditions have shown promising results. However, their mechanisms of action have not been fully known yet and need further study. The present study aimed to evaluate the preventive effect of swimming exercise on some liver factors involved in inflammation and MS. 
Materials and Methods: In this study, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice, and the effect of a 6-week swimming exercise on the levels of fetuin-A, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in their liver tissue was investigated by western blot analysis and NAD+ colorimetric assay.
Results: The study showed that EAE induction substantially (3.5 - fold) enhanced the fetuin-A levels and caused a reduction in AMPK and NAD+ amount. This is when doing 6 weeks of swimming exercise reduced fetuin-A to slightly above control. Also, levels of AMPK and NAD+ markedly increased in C57BL/6 mice with EAE.
Conclusion: Doing regular exercise may limit the body’s inflammatory responses and reduce the severity of MS by regulating the expression of fetuin-A and increasing AMPK and NAD⁺ levels in liver tissue.


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