Ameliorative effects of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) and its active constituents on nervous system disorders: A review

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Education District 4, Mashhad, Iran

2 Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Nowadays, the global interest in the use of herbal medicines and their main components in developing novel effective medications with fewer adverse effects is rising. Precise medicinal plants have potential advantageous applications for several neurodegenerative disorders. Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) belongs to the Portulacaceae Juss family. In folk medicine, it has been used as a febrifuge, antiseptic, vermifuge, and in treating arthritis, burns, cough, headache, intestine, stomach, liver disorders, as well as shortness of breath. Pharmacological investigations have also disclosed its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, immunomodulatory, antidepressant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective properties. The current work prepared an updated and broad literature review on purslane highlighting its therapeutic effects on some nervous system disorders. It has been shown that P. oleracea and its active constituents have considerable neuroregenerative, neuroprotective, and antinociceptive properties. Accordingly, our team classified and discussed the outcomes of some nervous system disorders comprising Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, epilepsy, anxiety, psychosis, drug dependence, hypoxia, and pain; although, additional preclinical and clinical assessments are necessary to reinforce the beneficial effects of purslane on nervous system disorders.


1. Rahbardar MG, Hosseinzadeh H. Therapeutic effects of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and its active constituents on nervous system disorders. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020; 23:1100-1112.
2. Li JW-H, Vederas JC. Drug discovery and natural products: End of an era or an endless frontier? Science 2009; 325:161-165.
3. Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Hosseinzadeh H. Effects of rosmarinic acid on nervous system disorders: an updated review. Naunyn-Schmiedeb Arch Pharmacol 2020; 393:1779-1795.
4. Ardakanian A, Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Omidkhoda F, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Effect of alpha-mangostin on olanzapine-induced metabolic disorders in rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2022; 25:198-207.
5. Tandisepanah Z, Foroutanfar A, Aziminia A, Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Protective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Lippia citriodora Kunth. on acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity. Avicenna J Phytomed 2022; 12:281-294.
6. Yahyazadeh R, Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Razavi BM, Karimi G, Hosseinzadeh H. The effect of Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom) on the metabolic syndrome: Narrative review. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021; 24:1462-1469.
7. Ocampo G, Columbus JT. Molecular phylogenetics, historical biogeography, and chromosome number evolution of Portulaca (Portulacaceae). Mol Phylogenet Evol 2012; 63:97-112.
8. Kumar A, Sreedharan S, Kashyap AK, Singh P, Ramchiary N. A review on bioactive phytochemicals and ethnopharmacological potential of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.). Heliyon 2021;8:e08669.
9. Chugh V, Mishra V, Dwivedi S, Sharma K. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.): An underutilized wonder plant with potential pharmacological value. J Pharm Innov 2019; 8:236-246.
10. Abd El-Azime AS, Hussein EM, Ashry OM. Synergestic effect of aqueous purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) extract and fish oil on radiation-induced damage in rats. Int J Radiat Biol 2014; 90:1184-1190.
11. Ahangarpour A, Oroojan AA, Khorsandi L, Lamoochi Z. Effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) on kidney of aging model induced by D-galactose in female mice. Iran J Pharmacol Ther 2016; 14:1-9.
12. Petropoulos SA, Fernandes Â, Dias MI, Vasilakoglou IB, Petrotos K, Barros L, et al. Nutritional value, chemical composition and cytotoxic properties of common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) in relation to harvesting stage and plant part. Antioxidants 2019; 8:293.
13. Uddin M, Juraimi AS, Hossain MS, Nahar M, Un A, Ali M, et al. Purslane weed (Portulaca oleracea): A prospective plant source of nutrition, omega-3 fatty acid, and antioxidant attributes. Sci World J 2014; 2014:951019.
14. Ashrafi A, Zahedi M, Soleimani M. Effect of co-planted purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) on Cd accumulation by sunflower in different levels of Cd contamination and salinity: A pot study. Int J Phytoremediation 2015; 17:853-860.
15. Tiwari K, Dwivedi S, Mishra S, Srivastava S, Tripathi R, Singh N, et al. Phytoremediation efficiency of Portulaca tuberosa rox and Portulaca oleracea L. naturally growing in an industrial effluent irrigated area in Vadodra, Gujrat, India. Environ Monit Assess 2008; 147:15-22.
16. Melilli MG, Pagliaro A, Scandurra S, Gentile C, Di Stefano V. Omega-3 rich foods: Durum wheat spaghetti fortified with Portulaca oleracea. Food Biosci 2020; 37:100730.
17. Zhu H, Wang Y, Liu Y, Xia Y, Tang T. Analysis of flavonoids in Portulaca oleracea L. by UV–vis spectrophotometry with comparative study on different extraction technologies. Food Anal Methods 2010; 3:90-97.
18. Gu Y, Leng A, Zhang W, Ying X, Stien D. A novel alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea L. and its anti-inflammatory activity. Nat Prod Res 2022; 36:595-600.
19. Jalali J, Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M. Ameliorative effects of Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) on the metabolic syndrome: A review. J Ethnopharmacol 2022;299:115672.
20. Nakisa N, Rahbardar MG. Action mechanisms of antirheumatic herbal medicines. Rheumatoid Arthritis: IntechOpen; 2021.
21. Razavi BM, Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Hosseinzadeh H. A review of therapeutic potentials of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its active constituent, curcumin, on inflammatory disorders, pain, and their related patents. Phytother Res 2021; 35:6489-6513.
22. Rahbardar MG, Eisvand F, Rameshrad M, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. In vivo and in vitro protective effects of rosmarinic acid against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Nutr Cancer 2021; 74:747-760.
23. Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Hemadeh B, Razavi BM, Eisvand F, Hosseinzadeh H. Effect of carnosic acid on acrylamide induced neurotoxicity: in vivo and in vitro experiments. Drug Chem Toxicol 2022;45:1528-1535.
24. Alavi MS, Fanoudi S, Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Mehri S, Hosseinzadeh H. An updated review of protective effects of rosemary and its active constituents against natural and chemical toxicities. Phytother Res 2021; 35:1313-1328.
25. Chen C-J, Wang W-Y, Wang X-L, Dong L-W, Yue Y-T, Xin H-L, et al. Anti-hypoxic activity of the ethanol extract from Portulaca oleracea in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 124:246-250.
26. Nemzer B, Al-Taher F, Abshiru N. Phytochemical composition and nutritional value of different plant parts in two cultivated and wild purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) genotypes. Food Chem 2020; 320:126621.
27. Mashhadi SNY, Askari VR, Ghorani V, Jelodar GA, Boskabady MH. The effect of Portulaca oleracea and α-linolenic acid on oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Indian J Pharmacol 2018; 50:177-184.
28. Fernández-Poyatos MdP, Llorent-Martínez EJ, Ruiz-Medina A. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Portulaca oleracea: Influence of the steaming cooking process. Foods 2021; 10:94.
29. Ma Y, Bao Y, Zhang W, Ying X, Stien D. Four lignans from Portulaca oleracea L. and its antioxidant activities. Nat Prod Res 2020; 34:2276-2282.
30. Hu S, Chai WC, Xu L, Li S, Jin C, Zhu R, et al. Catecholic alkaloid sulfonates and aromatic nitro compounds from Portulaca oleracea and screening of their anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. Phytochemistry 2021; 181:112587.
31. Jin T-Y, Li S-Q, Jin C-R, Shan H, Wang R-M, Zhou M-X, et al. Catecholic isoquinolines from Portulaca oleracea and their anti-inflammatory and β2-adrenergic receptor agonist activity. J Nat Prod 2018; 81:768-777.
32. Catap ES, Kho MJL, Jimenez MRR. In vivo nonspecific immunomodulatory and antispasmodic effects of common purslane (Portulaca oleracea Linn.) leaf extracts in ICR mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2018; 215:191-198.
33. Roozi H, Bojar MA, Eidi V, Ali K. Effects of oleracein E and oleracein L from Portulaca oleracea on cell survival, antioxidant and antidiabetic efficacy on beta-TC-6 pancreatic cell line. Indian J Pharm Sci 2019; 81:681-689.
34. Tleubayeva MI, Datkhayev UM, Alimzhanova M, Ishmuratova MY, Korotetskaya NV, Abdullabekova RM, et al. Component composition and antimicrobial activity of CO2 extract of Portulaca oleracea, growing in the territory of Kazakhstan. Sci World J 2021; 2021:5434525.
35. Murtaza I, Rashid N, Laila O, Ganie NA, Wani MY. Anti-cancer and anti-microbial potential of nutraceutical rich under utilized herb Portulaca oleracea from Kashmir region. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2020; 9:3496-3508.
36. Sun H, He X, Liu C, Li L, Zhou R, Jin T, et al. Effect of Oleracein E, a neuroprotective tetrahydroisoquinoline, on rotenone-induced Parkinson’s disease cell and animal models. ACS Chem Neurosci 2017; 8:155-164.
37. Farag OM, Abd-Elsalam RM, Ogaly HA, Ali SE, El Badawy SA, Alsherbiny MA, et al. Metabolomic profiling and neuroprotective effects of purslane seeds extract against acrylamide toxicity in rat’s brain. Neurochem Res 2021; 46:819-842.
38. Martins WB, Rodrigues SA, Silva HK, Dantas CG, Júnior WDL, CARDOSO JC, et al. Neuroprotective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of dopaminergic neurons. An Acad Bras Cienc 2016; 88:1439-1450.
39. E Abdel Moneim A. The neuroprotective effects of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) on rotenone-induced biochemical changes and apoptosis in brain of rat. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2013; 12:830-841.
40. Hongxing Z, Nancai Y, Guofu H, Jianbo S, Yanxia W, Hanju H, et al. Neuroprotective effects of purslane herb aquenous extracts against D-galactose induced neurotoxicity. Chem Biol Interact 2007; 170:145-152.
41. Park S-J, Choi M-J, Chung S-Y, Kim J-W, Cho S-H. The involvement of AMPA receptor in the antidepressant-like effects of the portulaca oleracea L. extract in mice. J Oriental Neuropsychiat 2013; 24:271-280.
42. Miladi-Gorgi H, Vafaei A, Rashidy-Pour A, Taherian A, Jarrahi M, Emami-Abargoie M. Investigation of anxiolytic effects of the aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea in mice. Iran J Pharm Sci 2010;3:57-57.
43. Aboulthana WM, Omar NI, Hasan EA, Ahmed KA, Youssef AM. Assessment of the biological activities of Egyptian purslane (Portulaca oleracea) extract after incorporating metal nanoparticles, in vitro and in vivo study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2022; 23:287-310.
44. Truong HKT, Huynh MA, Vuu MD, Dang TPT. Evaluating the potential of Portulaca oleracea L. for Parkinson’s disease treatment using a drosophila model with dUCH-knockdown. Parkinson’s Disease 2019; 2019:1818259.
45. Chen YX, Li GZ, Zhang B, Xia ZY, Zhang M. Molecular evaluation of herbal compounds as potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Mol Med Rep 2016; 14:446-452.
46. Francis PT, Palmer AM, Snape M, Wilcock GK. The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease: a review of progress. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999; 66:137-147.
47. Mudher A, Lovestone S. Alzheimer’s disease–do tauists and baptists finally shake hands? Trends Neurosci 2002; 25:22-26.
48. Alikhani V, Beheshti F, Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Marefati N, Mansouritorghabeh F, Hosseini M. Inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aminoguanidine improved Ki67 as a marker of neurogenesis and learning and memory in juvenile hypothyroid rats. Int J Dev Neurosci 2020; 80:429-442.
49. Baghcheghi Y, Salmani H, Beheshti F, Shafei MN, Sadeghnia HR, Soukhtanloo M, et al. Effects of PPAR-γ agonist, pioglitazone on brain tissues oxidative damage and learning and memory impairment in juvenile hypothyroid rats. Int J Neurosci 2019; 129:1024-1038.
50. Xu H, Zhang W, Leng A, Ying X. Two new natural products from Portulaca oleracea L. and their antioxidant, antiacetylcholinesterase activities. Lat Am J Pharm 2018; 37:480-483.
51. Ma Y, Li X, Zhang W, Ying X, Stien D. A trace alkaloid, oleraisoindole A from Portulaca oleracea L. and its anticholinesterase effect. Nat Prod Res 2021; 35:350-353.
52. Xu W, Ying Z, Tao X, Ying X, Yang G. Two new amide alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea L. and their anticholinesterase activities. Nat Prod Res 2021; 35:3794-3800.
53. Gu Y, Ying Z, Lan X, Ying X, Yang G. Two new esters from the aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea L. and their bioactivities. Phytochem Lett 2021; 44:98-101.
54. Tao H, Ye D-L, Wu Y-L, Han M-M, Xue J-S, Liu Z-H, et al. The protective effect of polysaccharide extracted from Portulaca oleracea L. against Pb-induced learning and memory impairments in rats. Int J Biol Macromol 2018; 119:617-623.
55. Xiang-Zhong G, Huan-Fang C, editors. Anti-aging effects of Betacyanins from Portulaca oleracea L. 2010 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering; 2010: IEEE.
56. Wang C-Q, Yang G-Q. Betacyanins from Portulaca oleracea L. ameliorate cognition deficits and attenuate oxidative damage induced by D-galactose in the brains of senescent mice. Phytomedicine 2010; 17:527-532.
57. Sarshar S, Rafati H, Rabiee Z. Portulaca oleracea L. exhibits increased memory ability in rats. Planta Medica 2013; 79:PB41.
58. Metwally ESAM, Karawya FS. Neuroprotective effects of purslane seeds against adverse effects induced by experimental hyperlipidemia on frontal cortex and cerebellum in young male albino rats. Int J Clin Exp Med 2015; 1:3.
59. Tabatabaei SRF, Rashno M, Ghaderi S, Askaripour M. The aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea ameliorates neurobehavioral dysfunction and hyperglycemia related to streptozotocin-diabetes induced in ovariectomized rats. Iran J Pharm Res 2016; 15:561-571.
60. Noorbakhshnia M, Karimi-Zandi L. Portulaca oleracea L. prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced passive avoidance learning and memory and TNF-α impairments in hippocampus of rat. Physiol Behav 2017; 169:69-73.
61. Wang P, Sun H, Liu D, Jiao Z, Yue S, He X, et al. Protective effect of a phenolic extract containing indoline amides from Portulaca oleracea against cognitive impairment in senescent mice induced by large dose of D-galactose/NaNO2. J Ethnopharmacol 2017; 203:252-259.
62. Parsa H, Shiravand T, Ranjbar K, Komaki A. The effect of exercise training and Portulaca oleracea on neurobehavioral dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats.  2021.
63. Parsa H, Ghasemi F, Ranjbar K, Komaki A. The effect of co-administration of Portulaca oleracea and Plantago psyllium plus submaximal swimming training on memory deficit in streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats.  2021b.
64. Hussein RM, Youssef AM, Magharbeh MK, Al-Dalaen SM, Al-Jawabri NA, Al-Nawaiseh TN, et al. Protective effect of Portulaca oleracea extract against lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation, memory decline, and oxidative stress in mice: Potential role of miR-146a and miR-let 7. J Med Food 2022;25:807-817.
65. Fahn S, Sulzer D. Neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in Parkinson disease. NeuroRx 2004; 1:139-154.
66. Mohammadzadeh L, Rahbardar MG, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Crocin protects malathion-induced Parkinson-like disease by inhibiting apoptosis and α-synuclein accumulation in rats’ striatum. J Mol Neurosci 2022; 72:983-993.
67. Zhai S, Tanimura A, Graves SM, Shen W, Surmeier DJ. Striatal synapses, circuits, and Parkinson’s disease. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2018; 48:9-16.
68. Jones-Tabah J, Mohammad H, Hadj-Youssef S, Kim LE, Martin RD, Benaliouad F, et al. Dopamine D1 receptor signalling in dyskinetic Parkinsonian rats revealed by fiber photometry using FRET-based biosensors. Sci Rep 2020; 10:1-18.
69. Najafi N, Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Hosseinzadeh H, Hayes AW, Karimi G. Chemical agents protective against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. Toxicol Environ Chem 2022;104:1-28.
70. Huang N, Huang J, Zhang Y, Chen M, Shi J, Jin F. Resveratrol against 6-OHDA-induced damage of PC12 cells via PI3K/Akt. Transl Neurosci 2021; 12:138-144.
71. Al-Quraishy S, Dkhil MA, Moneim AEA. Protective effects of Portulaca oleracea against rotenone mediated depletion of glutathione in the striatum of rats as an animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Pestic Biochem Physiol 2012; 103:108-114.
72. Moneim AEA, Dkhil MA, Al-Quraishy S. The potential role of Portulaca oleracea as a neuroprotective agent in rotenone-induced neurotoxicity and apoptosis in the brain of rats. Pestic Biochem Physiol 2013; 105:203-212.
73. Vaidya SK, Golwala DK, Patel DS, Sahoo S. Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-Parkinson activity of Portulaca oleracea seed methanolic extract. Euro J Med Plant 2020; 31:10-17.
74. Rahbardar MG, Hosseinzadeh H. Mechanisms of action of herbal antidepressants.  The Neuroscience of Depression: Elsevier; 2021. p. 503-518.
75. Antonijevic IA. Depressive disorders-is it time to endorse different pathophysiologies? Psychoneuroendocrinology 2006; 31:1-15.
76. Hindmarch I. Expanding the horizons of depression: beyond the monoamine hypothesis. Hum Psychopharmacol 2001; 16:203-218.
77. Landsman A. Gene expression in depression: Molecular aspects of postpartum depression. The Neuroscience of Depression: Elsevier; 2021. p. 25-35.
78. Wang W, Gu L, Dong L, Wang X. Protective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts on hypoxic nerve tissue and its mechanism. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2007; 16:227-233.
79. Ozturk M, Altay V, Güvensen A. Portulaca oleracea: A vegetable from saline habitats. Handbook of Halophytes: From Molecules to Ecosystems towards Biosaline Agriculture 2020:1-14.
80. Sassoui D, Seridi R, Azine K, Houmani Z. Évaluation des teneurs en oméga-3 et effet antidépressif des extraits de Portulaca oleracea L. Phytotherapie 2017; 17:23-30.
81. Lee C-H, Yoon B-H, Ryu J-H, Jung J-W. Anxiolytic-like effects of Portulaca oleraceae L. using the elevated plus-maze in mice. Adv Trad Med 2009; 9:135-141.
82. Devi MM, Devi LT, Devi NM, Devi KKP, Devi AS. Anticonvulsant effect of Portulaca oleracea in experimental animal models. J Med Soc 2016; 30:94-97.
83. Guerriero RM, Giza CC, Rotenberg A. Glutamate and GABA imbalance following traumatic brain injury. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2015; 15:1-11.
84. Al-Bishri WM, Abdel-Reheim ES, Zaki AR. Purslane protects against the reproductive toxicity of carbamazepine treatment in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2017; 7:339-346.
85. Hegde K, Thakker SP, Joshi AB, Shastry C, Chandrashekhar K. Anticonvulsant activity of Carissa carandas Linn. root extract in experimental mice. Trop J Pharm Res 2009; 8:117-125.
86. Hosseini M, Pkan P, Rakhshandeh H, Aghaie A, Sadeghnia HR, Rahbardar MG. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of citrus flower on pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. World Appl Sci J 2011; 15:1104-1109.
87. Liu W, Ge T, Pan Z, Leng Y, Lv J, Li B. The effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. Oncotarget 2017; 8:48385–48397.
88. Lee K, Roth RA, LaPres JJ. Hypoxia, drug therapy and toxicity. Pharmacol Ther 2007; 113:229-246.
89. Wanyin W, Liwei D, Lin J, Hailiang X, Changquan L, Min L. Ethanol extract of Portulaca oleracea L. protects against hypoxia-induced neuro damage through modulating endogenous erythropoietin expression. J Nutr Biochem 2012; 23:385-391.
90. Naranda T, Wong K, Kaufman RI, Goldstein A, Olsson L. Activation of erythropoietin receptor in the absence of hormone by a peptide that binds to a domain different from the hormone binding site. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1999; 96:7569-7574.
91. Jelkmann W. Molecular biology of erythropoietin. Intern Med 2004; 43:649-659.
92. Marti HH. Erythropoietin and the hypoxic brain. J Exp Biol 2004; 207:3233-3242.
93. Noguchi CT, Asavaritikrai P, Teng R, Jia Y. Role of erythropoietin in the brain. Crit Rev Oncol/Hematol 2007; 64:159-171.
94. Cotena S, Piazza O, Tufano R. The use of erythtropoietin in cerebral diseases. Panminerva Med 2008; 50:185-192.
95. Ehrenreich H, Weissenborn K, Prange H, Schneider D, Weimar C, Wartenberg K, et al. Recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2009; 40:e647-e656.
96. Minnerup J, Wersching H, Schäbitz W-R. EPO for stroke therapy-Is there a future for further clinical development? Exp Transl Stroke Med 2010; 2:1-3.
97. Varnaseri M, Rahnem M, Bigdeli M. The effect of pre-feeding with Purslane seed oil (Portulaca oleracea) on brain stroke volume (MCAO model) in the rat animal model. J Isfahan Med Sch 2015; 33:1197-1210.
98. Woolf CJ. What is this thing called pain? J Clin Investig 2010; 120:3742-3744.
99. Ghasemzadeh MR, Amin B, Mehri S, Mirnajafi-Zadeh SJ, Hosseinzadeh H. Effect of alcoholic extract of aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on pain, inflammation and apoptosis induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2016; 194:117-130.
100. Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Investigating the ameliorative effect of alpha‐mangostin on development and existing pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Phytother Res 2020; 34:3211-3225.
101. Rahbardar MG, Amin B, Mehri S, Mirnajafi-Zadeh SJ, Hosseinzadeh H. Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and rosmarinic acid in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Biomed Pharmacother 2017; 86:441-449.
102. Rahbardar MG, Amin B, Mehri S, Mirnajafi-Zadeh SJ, Hosseinzadeh H. Rosmarinic acid attenuates development and existing pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain: An evidence of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Phytomedicine 2018; 40:59-67.
103. Farhadpour F, Alvany A, Khakpour B, Ahmadi R, Mahdavi E. The effects of Portulaca oleracea seed hydroalcoholic extract on pain threshold. Bio Med Sci 2014; 10:28-29.
104. Fatima N, Syed S, Ahmad M, Jabeen M, Jahan N. A comparison of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Portulaca oleraceae leaf and seeds. J Pharm Pharm 2018; 6:194-199.
105. Forouzanfar F, Hosseinzadeh H, Khorrami MB, Asgharzade S, Rakhshandeh H. Attenuating effect of Portulaca oleracea extract on chronic constriction injury induced neuropathic pain in rats: an evidence of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2019; 18:342-349.
106. Niazi A, Yousefzadeh S, Rakhshandeh H, Esmaeily H. The effect of nipple soreness treatment with purslane cream and lanolin on frequency and duration of breastfeeding in nursing mothers: A randomized clinical trial. J Midwifery Reproductive Health 2019; 7:1527-1535.
107. Nasirzadeh A, Basiri Moghadam M, Basiri Moghadam K. The effect of purslane ointment on chronic musculoskeletal pain in the elderly. Horizon Med Sci 2019; 25:244-254.
108. Rafiee Vardanjani L, Parvin N, Dehkordi F, Shahinfard N, Mortazaei S, Ansari Samani R. The effects of Portulaca oleracea L (purslane) on psychologic symptoms and malondialdehyde level in schizophrenic patients. Sci J Kurdistan Univ Med Sci 2013; 18:28-34.
109. Miladi-Gorji H, Vafaei AA, Taherian AA, Vaezi T. The effects of aqueous extracts of Purtulaca oleracea on withdrawal syndrome in mice. J Med Plant 2009:51-57.