In vivo study of anticancer activity of ginsenoside Rh2-containing arginine-reduced graphene in a mouse model of breast cancer

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biology, Science and Arts University, Yazd, Iran

2 Reproductive Immunology Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

3 Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

4 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Meybod University, Meybod, Iran

5 Department of Pathology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

6 Faculty of Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Objective(s): This study aims to evaluate the in vivo anticancer activity of arginine-reduced graphene (Gr-Arg) and ginsenoside Rh2-containing arginine-reduced graphene (Gr-Arg-Rh2). 
Materials and Methods: Thirty-two mice with breast cancer were divided into four groups and treated every three days for 32 days: Group 1, PBS, Group 2, Rh2, Group 3, Gr-Arg, and Group 4, Gr-Arg-Rh2. The tumor size and weight, gene expression (IL10, INF-γ, TGFβ, and FOXP3), and pathological properties of the tumor and normal tissues were assessed. 
Results: Results showed a significant decrease in TGFβ expression for all drug treatment groups compared with the controls (P=0.04). There was no significant difference among the groups regarding IL10 and FOXP3 gene expression profiles (P>0.05). Gr-Arg-Rh2 significantly inhibited tumor growth (size and weight) compared with Rh2 and control groups. The highest survival rate and the highest percentage of tumor necrosis (87.5%) belonged to the Gr-Arg-Rh2 group. Lungs showed metastasis in the control group. No metastasis was observed in the Gr-Arg-Rh2 group. Gr-Arg-Rh2 showed partial degeneration of hepatocytes and acute cell infiltration in the portal spaces and around the central vein. The Gr-Arg group experienced a moderate infiltration of acute cells into the port spaces and around the central vein. The Rh2 group also showed a mild infiltration of acute and chronic cells in portal spaces. 
Conclusion: Based on the results, Gr-Arg-Rh2 can reduce tumor size, weight, and growth, TGF-β gene expression, and increase tumor necrosis and survival time in mice with cancer. 


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