Pharmacological and toxicity effects of Zhumeria majdae and its bioactive constituents: A review

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Zhumeria majdae Rech. F. & Wendelbo. traditionally has been used in several remedies, as a carminative agent especially for children, as an antiseptic agent, and it is used in treating diarrhea, stomach irritations, headaches, colds, convulsions, spasms, dysmenorrhea, and healing wounds. According to clinical studies, it is highly effective for reducing inflammation and pain, treating bacterial and fungal infections, morphine tolerance, morphine dependence, withdrawal syndrome symptoms, convulsions, and diabetes. The goal of this review is to find therapeutic opportunities by analyzing the traditional uses and pharmacological effects of the chemical constituents of Z. majdae.
The information on Z. majdae in this review was gathered from scientific databases or search engines (PubMed, Wiley Online Library, Scopus, SID, Google Scholar, and Microsoft Academic). The literature cited in this review dates from 1992 to 2021. Several bioactive components including linalool, camphor, manool, and bioactive diterpenoids are presen in different parts of Z. majdae. Various properties were observed such as antioxidant, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, larvicidal, anticonvulsant, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties. Also, the effect of Z. majdae on morphine tolerance, morphine dependence, and withdrawal syndrome as well as its toxicology has been established. Although there are in vitro and animal studies on several pharmacological effects of Z. majdae, the lack of clinical studies is significant. Therefore, further clinical trials should be performed to confirm the in vitro and animal findings. 


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