Investigation of apoptotic and autophagic effects of chronic roflumilast use on testicular tissue in rats by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence methods

Document Type : Original Article


1 Vocational School of Health Services, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey

2 Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey



Objective(s): The present study aims to determine how various dosages of chronic roflumilast affect testicular tissue and testosterone levels in healthy rats. 
Materials and Methods: Biochemical tests, along with histopathological, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescence studies, were carried out.
Results: Loss of tissue in the seminiferous epithelium, degeneration in the interstitial area, a separation between cells, desquamation, interstitial edema, and degenerative alterations in testicular tissue were observed in roflumilast groups when compared with the other groups. While apoptosis and autophagy were statistically negligible in the control and sham groups, the roflumilast groups had significantly higher apoptotic and autophagic alterations, as well as immunopositivity. Serum testosterone levels in the 1 mg/kg roflumilast group were lower than those in the control, sham, and 0.5 mg/kg roflumilast groups.
Conclusion: Analyses of the research findings revealed that continuous usage of the broad-spectrum active component roflumilast exerted unfavorable effects on the testicular tissue and testosterone levels of rats.


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