Hidden attributes of zymosan in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases: A tale of the fungal agent

Document Type : Review Article


1 Galgotias College of Pharmacy, Greater Noida, U.P., India

2 Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (SPER), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110062

3 Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh 249203, India



Inflammation triggers immune system-mediated actions that contribute to the development of multiple diseases. Zymosan, a polysaccharide derived from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall, is mainly made up of glucan and mannan residues and is used as an inflammatory agent. Zymosan is a fungal product that activates the immune system through the activation of inflammatory signaling pathways, and releases a variety of harmful chemicals including pattern recognition receptors, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the excitatory amino acid glutamate, cytokines, adhesion molecules, etc. Furthermore, we will dive into the molecular mechanistic insights through which this fungal agent induces and influences various inflammatory diseases such as cardiovascular, neuroinflammation, diabetes, arthritis, and sepsis. Based on the evidence, zymosan appears to be a promising inflammatory-inducing agent. Nonetheless, more animal data is the need of the hour to catch a glimpse and unravel the capacity of zymosan.


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