Antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, and renoprotective effects of Bursera simaruba on metabolic syndrome

Document Type : Original Article


1 Medical Surgeon Career, Faculty of Superior Studies Iztacala, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Tlalnepantla, State of Mexico, 54090, Mexico

2 Histology Laboratory, Morphology and Function Unit, Faculty of Superior Studies Iztacala, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Tlalnepantla, State of Mexico, 54090, Mexico

3 Phytochemistry Area, Postgraduate Degree in Botany, Campus Montecillo, Postgraduate College, Km. 36.5 México-Texcoco Road, Montecillo, Texcoco, State of Mexico, C.P. 56230, Mexico

4 Department of Pharmacology, National Institute of Cardiology Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, C.P. 04510, Mexico

5 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Coyoacán, Mexico City, C.P. 04510, Mexico

6 Postgraduate Studies and Research Section, Higher School of Medicine, National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City, 11340, Mexico


Objective(s): Metabolic syndrome is associated with the development of chronic kidney disease. Bursera simaruba “chaca” is a medicinal plant used in Mexico for hypertension and empirical therapy.  In this study, were examined the effects of ethanol extract of B. simaruba on metabolic syndrome.
Materials and Methods: For induction of metabolic syndrome, 20% fructose was used, and it was administered in the water and food to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks, after administering ethanol extract of B. simaruba intragastrically (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks, blood pressure was determined. In plasma, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, angiotensin II, oxide nitric, and angiotensin 1-7 were quantified. In the kidney was performed histological study and the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes was quantified. 
Results: Rats with metabolic syndrome developed obesity, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and kidney damage characterized by proliferative glomerulonephritis, necrosis, and reduced activity of anti-oxidant enzymes. These alterations were significantly ameliorated by ethanol extract of B. simaruba.
Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of B. simaruba showed antidyslipidemic, antihypertensive, anti-oxidant, and renoprotective effects.


1. Lam DW, LeRoith D. Metabolic Syndrome. In Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, South Dartmouth (MA):, Inc.; 2000-.2019.
2.    Oyinloye BE,  Ojo OA,  Nwozo SO,  Kappo AP.  Cardioprotective and anti-oxidant influence of aqueous extracts from sesamum indicum seeds on oxidative stress induced by cadmium in wistar rats. Pharmacogn Mag 2016; 12: 170-174.
3.    Bratoeva K, Stoyanov GS, Merdzhanova A, Radanova M. Manifestations of Renal Impairment in Fructose-induced Metabolic Syndrome. Cureus 2017; 7: 1826-1835. 
4.    Maldini M, Montoro P, Piacente S, Pizza C. Phenolic compounds from Bursera simaruba Sarg. bark: Phytochemical investigation and quantitative analysis by tandem mass spectrometry. Phytochemistry 2009; 70: 641-649.
5.    Magos GA, Santiago J, Carrasco OF. Exploratory studies of some Mexican medicinal plants: Cardiovascular effects in rats with and without hypertension. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2017; 12: 274-279. 
6.    Merino H,  Arrieta D,  Jiménez M,   Magos G,  Hernández RJ,  Susunaga A,  et al. Effect of fructooligosaccharides fraction from Psacalium decompositum on inflammation and dyslipidemia in rats with fructose-induced obesity. Nutrients 2014; 29: 591-604.
7.    Guzmán EA, Villalobos R, Sánchez MA, Del Valle L, Pastelín G, Ibarra M. Early co-expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and renin in the rat kidney cortex contributes to the development of N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2015; 93: 299-308. 
8.    Huptas S, Geiss HC, Otto C, Parhofer KG. Effect of atorvastatin (10 mg/day) on glucose metabolism in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Am J Cardiol 2006; 98: 66-69.
9.    Ku HK, Lim HM, Oh KH, Yang HJ, Jeong JS, Kim SK. Interpretation of protein quantitation using the Bradford assay: comparison with two calculation models. Anal Biochem 2013; 434: 178-180.
10.    Ajiboye TO, Raji HO, Adeleye AO, Adigun NS, Giwa OB, Ojewuyi OB, et al. Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx palliates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rats. J Sci Food Agric 2016; 96: 1522-1531. 
11.    Tenorio  FA, Zarco  G, Sánchez A, Rosas M, Pastelín G, del Valle L. Simultaneous determination of angiotensins II and 1-7 by capillary zone electrophoresis in plasma and urine from hypertensive rats. Talanta 2010; 80: 1702-1712.
12.    Cho AS, Jeon SM, Kim MJ, Yeo J, Seo KI, Choi MS, et al. Chlorogenic acid exhibits anti-obesity property and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced-obese mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2010; 48: 937-943.
13.    Shi J, Feng H, Lee J and Chen W. Comparative proteomics profile of lipid-cumulating oleaginous yeast: an iTRAQ-coupled 2-D LC-MS/MS analysis. PLoS One 2013; 26; 8: e85532.
14.    Cho AS, Jeon SM, Kim MJ, Yeo J, Seo KI, Choi MS, et al. Chlorogenic acid exhibits anti-obesity property and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced-obese mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2010; 48: 937-943
15.    Stanely P and Senthil K. Preventive effects of caffeic acid on lipids, lipoproteins and glycoproteins in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. Food Res Int 2012; 45: 155-160.
16.    Kotsis V, Stabouli S, Papakatsika S, Rizos Z, Parati G. Mechanisms of obesity-induced hypertension. Hypertens Res 2010; 33: 386–393
17.    McCue P, Vattem D, Shetty K. Inhibitory effect of clonal oregano extracts against porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro. Asia Pac J clin Nutr 2004; 13: 401-408.
18.    Oboh G, ademiluyi AO, Agunloye OM, Ademosun AO and Ogunsakin BG. Inhibitory effect of garlic, purple onion, and white onion on key enzymes linked with type 2 and hypertension. J Diet Suppl 2019; 16: 105-118.
19.    Palanisamy N, Viswanathan P and Anuradha CV. Effect of genistein, a soy isoflavone, on whole-body insulin sensitivity and renal damage induced by a high-fructose diet. Ren Fail 2008; 30: 645-654. 
20.    Nakayama T, Kosugi T, Gersch M, Connor T, Sanchez-Lozada LG, Lanaspa MA, et al. Dietary fructose causes tubulointerstitial injury in the normal rat kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2010; 298: 712-20. 
21.    Patil CR, Jadhav RB, Singh PK, Mundada S, Patil PR. Protective effect of oleanolic acid on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Phytother Res 2010; 24: 33-37.
22.    Ueki M, Ueno M, Morishita J, and Maekawa N. Curcumin ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting renal inflammation in mice. J Biosci Bioeng 2013; 115: 547-551. 
23.    Ugur S, Ulu R, Dogukan A, Gurel A, Yigit IP, Gozel N, et al. The renoprotective effect of curcumin in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Renal Failure 2015; 37: 332-336.
24.    Suzuki K, Islam KN, Kaneto H, Ookawara T, Taniguchi N. The contribution of fructose and nitric oxide to oxidative stress in hamster islet tumor (HIT) cells through the inactivation of glutathione peroxidase. Electrophoresis 2000; 21: 285–288.
25.    Rajasekar P, Viswanathan P, Anuradha CV. Renoprotective action of L-carnitine in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Obes Metab 2008; 10: 171-80.
26.    Ajiboye TO, Yakubu MT, Oladiji AT. Lophirones B and C extenuate. AFB1-mediated oxidative onslaught on cellular proteins, lipids, and DNA through Nrf-2 expression. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2014; 28: 558–567.
27.    Fernández Á, Schmidt J, Perona JS, Correa M, Castellano JM and González E. Potential protective effect of oleanolic acid on the components of metabolic syndrome: A systematic review. J Clin Med 2019; 23: 345-355.