Anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant effects of Ocimum basilicum L. and its main constituents: A review

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran

3 Applied Biomedical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

5 Pharmacognosy Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

6 International Research Center for Food Nutrition and Safety, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China

7 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, 32512 Shebin El-Kom, Egypt

8 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum) is an ornamental and therapeutic plant with various pharmacological effects and medical applications. In this article, detailed information on the anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties of O. basilicum and its main constituents was provided. The literature survey of the different databases until the end of November 2021 was explored on the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the herb and its constituents. The plant and its constituents showed diverse pharmacological effects including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties by improving of the inflammatory mediators including interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), nitric oxide (NO), serum levels of IFN-γ, IL10 and IL-4, IgG, IgM and phospholipase A2 (PLA2), immunoglobulin E (IgE), total protein (TP), oxidant and anti-oxidant markers. O. basilicum and its main constituents therefore, could be effective on the treatment of diseases associated with inflammation, immune dysregulation and oxidative stress. The present review article provides readers with organized information about the anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties of O. basilicum.


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