Malaysian brown macroalga Padina australis mitigates lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2 Sungai Buloh Training Institute of Ministry of Health Malaysia, Jalan Hospital, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia

3 Department of Biological Sciences, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

5 Neuromodulation Laboratory, School of Biomedical Sciences, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China


Objective(s): Neuroinflammation and microglial activation are pathological features in central nervous system disorders. Excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in exacerbation of neuronal damage during chronic activation of microglial cells. Padina australis, a brown macroalga, has been demonstrated to have various pharmacological properties such as anti-neuroinflammatory activity. However, the underlying mechanism mediating the anti-neuroinflammatory potential of P. australis remains poorly understood. We explored the use of Malaysian P. australis in attenuating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells. 
Materials and Methods: Fresh specimens of P. australis were freeze-dried and subjected to ethanol extraction. The ethanol extract (PAEE) was evaluated for its protective effects against 1 µg/ml LPS-stimulated neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells. 
Results: LPS reduced the viability of BV2 microglia cells and increased the levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the neuroinflammatory response was reversed by 0.5–2.0 mg/ml PAEE in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) of PAEE subfractions revealed five compounds; methyl α-eleostearate, ethyl α-eleostearate, niacinamide, stearamide, and linoleic acid. 
Conclusion: The protective effects of PAEE against LPS-stimulated neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells were found to be mediated by the suppression of excess levels of intracellular ROS and pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, denoting the protective role of P. australis in combating continuous neuroinflammation. Our findings support the use of P. australis as a possible therapeutic for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.


Main Subjects

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