Propolis and its constituents against cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and dyslipidemia: A comprehensive review

Document Type : Review Article


1 School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are some of the major causes of death worldwide. The modern lifestyle elevates the risk of CVDs. CVDs have several risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes. Using herbal and natural products plays a pivotal role in the treatment of different diseases such as CVDs, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Propolis, a natural resinous mixture, is made by honey bees. Its main components are phenolics and terpenoid compounds such as caffeic acid phenethyl ester, chrysin, and quercetin. In this review, multiple studies regarding the pharmacological impacts of propolis and its constituents with their related mechanisms of action against mentioned CVD risk factors have been discussed in detail. Here, we used electronic databases or search engines such as Scopus, Web of Science, Pubmed, and Google Scholar without time limitations. The primary components of propolis are phenolics and terpenoid compounds such as caffeic acid phenethyl ester, chrysin and quercetin. Propolis and its constituents have been found to exhibit anti-obesity, anti-hypertension, anti-dyslipidemic, anti-atherosclerosis, and anti-diabetic effects. The vast majority of studies discussed in this review demonstrate that propolis and its constituents could have therapeutic effects against mentioned CVD risk factors via several mechanisms such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, reducing adipogenesis, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect, inhibition of the ACE, increasing insulin secretion, NO level, etc.


Main Subjects

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