Boosting therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells in pulmonary fibrosis: The role of genetic modification and preconditioning strategies

Document Type : Review Article


1 Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Laboratory Hematology and Blood Banking, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

3 Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Afzalipour Medical Faculty, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

4 Applied Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

5 Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

6 Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran

7 School of Pharmacy, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran

8 Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cosmetic Products Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

9 Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is the end stage of severe lung diseases, in which the lung parenchyma is replaced by fibrous scar tissue. The result is a remarkable reduction in pulmonary compliance, which may lead to respiratory failure and even death. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most prevalent form of PF, with no reasonable etiology. However, some factors are believed to be behind the etiology of PF, including prolonged administration of several medications (e.g., bleomycin and amiodarone), environmental contaminant exposure (e.g., gases, asbestos, and silica), and certain systemic diseases (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus). Despite significant developments in the diagnostic approach to PF in the last few years, efforts to find more effective treatments remain challenging. With their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic properties, stem cells may provide a promising approach for treating a broad spectrum of fibrotic conditions. However, they may lose their biological functions after long-term in vitro culture or exposure to harsh in vivo situations. To overcome these limitations, numerous modification techniques, such as genetic modification, preconditioning, and optimization of cultivation methods for stem cell therapy, have been adopted. Herein, we summarize the previous investigations that have been designed to assess the effects of stem cell preconditioning or genetic modification on the regenerative capacity of stem cells in PF.


Main Subjects

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