Trans-sodium crocetinate suppresses apoptotic and oxidative response following myoglobin-induced cytotoxicity in HEK-293 cells

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Objective(s): Rhabdomyolysis (RM) is a serious fatal syndrome. The RM leads to acute kidney injury (AKI) as a fatal complication. The belief is that RM-induced AKI is triggered by myoglobin (MB). MB activates oxidative and apoptotic pathways. Trans-sodium crocetinate (TSC) is obtained from saffron. It has anti-oxidant and renoprotective effects. This research was designed to assess the mechanisms of MB-induced cytotoxicity in  HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney cells) as well as the possible effects of TSC against MB-induced cytotoxicity. 
Materials and Methods: HEK-293 cells were exposed to diverse concentrations of TSC (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 µM) for 24 hr. Then, MB (9 mg/ml) was added to the cells. After 24 hr, cell viability was measured through MTT, and the values of ROS generation were calculated using DCFH-DA assay. Also, autophagy and apoptosis markers in cells were assessed by western blot analysis.
Results: MB decreased viability and increased ROS levels in HEK-293 cells. However, pretreatment of HEK-293 cells with TSC for 24 hr reduced the cytotoxicity and ROS production caused by MB. Furthermore, MB enhanced both the apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio) and autophagy markers (LC3II/I ratio and Beclin-1) in HEK-293 cells. On the other hand, TSC pretreatment condensed the levels of autophagy and apoptosis criteria in response to MB cytotoxicity. 
Conclusion: TSC has a positive effect in preventing MB-induced cytotoxicity in HEK-293 cells by increasing anti-oxidant activity and regulation of apoptotic and autophagy signaling pathways.


Main Subjects

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