Comprehensive and updated review on anti-oxidant effects of Nigella sativa and its constituent, thymoquinone, in various disorders

Document Type : Review Article


1 Applied Biomedical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Lung Inflammatory Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran

3 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

4 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran



Several pharmacological effects were described for Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed and it has been used traditionally to treat various diseases. In this review article, the updated and comprehensive anti-oxidant effects of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone (TQ), on various disorders are described. The relevant articles were retrieved through PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus up to December 31, 2023. Various extracts and essential oils of N. sativa showed anti-oxidant effects on cardiovascular, endocrine, gastrointestinal and liver, neurologic, respiratory, and urogenital diseases by decreasing and increasing various oxidant and anti-oxidant marketers, respectively. The main constituent of the plant, TQ, also showed similar anti-oxidant effects as the plant itself. The anti-oxidant effects of different extracts and essential oils of N. sativa were demonstrated in various studies which were perhaps due to the main constituent of the plant, TQ. The findings of this review article suggest the possible therapeutic effect of N. sativa and TQ in oxidative stress disorders. 


Main Subjects

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