Long-term effects of warm water immersion on kidney tissue damage in diabetic rats

Document Type : Original Article


1 Institute for Basic Sciences, Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

2 Gametogenesis Research Center, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, Iran

3 Institute for Basic Sciences, Physiology Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

4 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran



Objective(s): This study aimed to investigate the effects of Warm Water Immersion (WWI) on inflammation, kidney function, and kidney tissue damage in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM).
Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided into four groups: Healthy Control (HC), Diabetic Control (DC), Diabetic Rats treated with WWI (DW), and Healthy Rats treated with WWI (HW). Daily 15-minute WWI sessions at 43 °C were administered for eight weeks. Various parameters including lipids, fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1C, insulin, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), HSP70, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary albumin excretion, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), oxidative stress, anti-oxidant parameters, and gene expression of RAGE, VEGF, and TGFß1 were assessed. Histological examination of kidney tissue was also conducted.
Results: Significant reductions in FBS, AGEs, glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO) levels were observed in the DW group compared to DC. Expression of RAGE, VEGF, and TGFß1 genes decreased in DW. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were lower in DW. Insulin, HDL cholesterol, catalase, total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), and tissue HSP70 were higher in DW. Histological assessment revealed reduced kidney damage in DW compared to DC.
Conclusion: WWI for eight weeks shows promise in mitigating diabetic nephropathy in rats, suggesting its potential as a non-invasive adjunctive therapy for managing diabetes complications.


Main Subjects

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