Differential Consequences of Unilateral Nasal Air-Puff Stimulation on Breathing Pattern and Respiratory System Mechanics in Tracheotomized Rats

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Physiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2 Department of Physiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

2 Clinical Biochemistry Research Center, Shahre Kurd University of Medical Sciences, Shahre Kurd, Iran

3 Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran

4 Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran


Arababadi MK, Abousaidi H, Hassanshahi GH, Pourfathollah AA,
Kennedy D, Daneshmandi S,
et al
. Polymorphisms within Exon 9,
But Not Intron 8, of the Vitamin D Receptor Gene Are Associated
with Asthma. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2011; 14:225-230.
2. Tafaghodi M, Jaafari MR, Nikouzadeh A. Evaluation of systemic
and mucosal immune responses following the nasal immunization
by various sizes of liposomes encapsulated with tetanus
toxoid. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2007; 9: 307-315.
3. Kelly JT, Prasad AK, Wexler A S. Detailed flow patterns in the nasal
cavity. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89:323–337.
4. Schreck S, Sullivan KJ, Ho CM, Chang HK. Correlations between
flow resistance and geometry in a model of the human nose. J
Appl Physiol 1993; 75:1767–1775.
5. Proctor DF. The upper airway. In: The Nose: Proctor DF, Anderson
IB.editors. Upper Airway Physiology and the Atmospheric Environment.
New York: Elsevier; 1982. p. 23–43.
6. Yu J. Airway mechanosensors. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2005;
7. Kubin L, Alheid GF, Zuperku EJ, McCrimmon DR. Central pathways
of pulmonary and lower airway vagal afferents. J Appl
Physiol 2006; 101:618–627.
8. Wallois F, Macron JM. Nasal air puff stimulations and laryngeal,
thoracic and abdominal muscle activities. Respir Physiol 1994;
9. Angell-James JE, De Burgh Daly M. Reflex respiratory and cardiovascular
effects of stimulation of receptors in the nose of the
dog. J Physiol 1972; 220:673-696.
10. Fontanari P, Burnet H, Zattara-Hartmann MC, Badier M, Jammes
Y. Changes in airway resistance induced by nasal or oral intermittent
positive pressure ventilation in normal individuals. Eur
Respir J 1999; 13:867-872.
11. Subbalakshmi NK, Saxena SK, Urmimala, D’Souza UJA. Immediate
effect of Pranayama on some selected parameters of cardiovascular,
pulmonary and higher functions of brain. Thai J Physiol
Sci?? 2005; 18:10-16.
12. Bernardi L, Wdowczyk-Szulc J, Valenti C, Castoldi S, Passino C,
Spadacini G,
et al
. Effects of controlled breathing, mental activity
and mental stress with or without verbalization on heart rate
variability. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 35:1462-1469.
13. Jella SA, Shannahoff-Khalsa DS. The effects of unilateral forced
nostril breathing on cognitive performance. Int J Neuro Sci 1993;
14. Jerath R, Edry JW, Barnes VA, Jerath V. Physiology of long
pranayamic breathing: Neural respiratory elements may provide
a mechanism that explains how slow deep breathing shifts
the autonomic nervous system. Med Hypoth 2006; 67:566-571.
15. Fasano MB. Combined airways: impact of upper airway on lower
airway. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2010; 18:15–20.
16. Hashemy SI. The human thioredoxin system: modifications and
clinical applications. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2011; 14:191-204
17. Tobin MJ. Asthma, airway biology, and nasal disorders in AJRCCM
2001. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 165:598–618.
18. Peroni DG, Piacentini GL, Ceravolo R, Boner AL. Difficult asthma:
possible association with rhinosinusitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol
2007; 18:25–27.
19. Bellardine CL, Ingenito EP, Hoffman A, Lopez F, Sanborn W, Suki
et al
. Heterogeneous Airway versus tissue mechanics and their
relation to gas exchange function during mechanical ventilation.
Ann Biomed Eng 2005; 33:626–641.
20. Kaczka, DW, Barnas GM, Suki B, Lutchen KR. Assessment of timedomain
analyses for estimation of low frequency respiratory
mechanical properties and impedance spectra. Ann Biomed Eng
1995; 23:135–151.
21. Chiang ST. Distribution of ventilation and frequency-dependence
of dynamic lung compliance. Thorax 1971; 26:721-726.
22. Moriya H T, Moraes JTB, Bates JHT. Nonlinear and frequency-dependent
mechanical behavior of the mouse respiratory system.
Ann Biomed Eng 2003; 31:318–326.
Bakhshesh M et al Unilateral Nasal and Respiratory Mechanics
Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2013; 16(2)
23. Otis AB, McKerrow CB, Bartlett RA, Mead J, Mcllroy MB. Mechanical
factors in distribution of pulmonary ventilation. J Appl Physiol
1956; 8:427-435.
24. Ingram RHJr, Schilder DP. Association of a decrease in dynamic
compliance with a change in gas distribution. J Appl Physiol
1968; 23:911-917.
25. Channin E, Tyler J. Effect of increased breathing frequency on
inspiratory resistance in emphysema. J Appl Physiol 1962; 17:605-
26. Fontanari P, Burnet H, Zattara-Hartmann MC, Badier M, Jammes
Y. Changes in airway resistance induced by nasal or oral intermittent
positive pressure ventilation in normal individuals. Eur
Respir J 1999; 13:867-872.
27. Fontanari P, Zattara-Hartman MC, Burnet H, Jammes Y. Nasal
eupneic inhalation of cold, dry air increases airway resistance in
asthmatic patients. Eur Respir J 1997; 10:2250-2254.
28. Fontanari P, Burnet H, Zattara-Hartmann MC, Badier M, Jammes
Y. Changes in airway resistance induced by nasal inhalation of
cold dry, dry or moist air in normal individuals. J Appl Physiol
1996; 81:1739-1743.
29. Woolcock AJ, Vincent NJ, Macklem PT. Frequency dependence of
compliance as a test for obstruction in the small airways. J Clin
Invest 1969; 48:1097-2000.