Repeated injections of orexin-A developed behavioral tolerance to its analgesic effects in rats

Document Type : Original Article


1 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran

2 Department of Physiology, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran

3 Neuroscience Research Center, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran

4 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran


Objective(s):Reduction of pharmacological effectiveness or tolerance appears following repeated administration of many analgesic drugs. We investigated tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of orexin-A, an endogenous potent analgesic peptide using the hot-plate test.
Materials and Methods:Orexin-A was microinjected ICV (intracerebroventricular) with an interval of 12 hr for 7 continuous days and its anti-nociceptive responses were measured on days 1, 4 and 7 using the hot-plate test following the first day of administration. Orexin-A was used at a dose of 100 pmol to induce analgesic effects.
Results:ICV administration of orexin-A produced an effective anti-nociception on the first day of experiment as measured by hot-plate 5, 15, and 30 min after the injection, in comparison with both baselines (hot-plate test one day before the beginning of orexin-A administration and control, saline-administrated group). However, repeated administration of orexin-A on the following days revealed a significant reduction in this analgesic effect during day 4 to day 7. However, to rule out any associative tolerance resulting from learning related to experimental procedures and/or environmental cues, a single injection of orexin-A was administrated to animals of control group (which were receiving saline during 7 days of experiments) and the analgesic effect was observed.
Conclusion:These results, for the first time, indicated the appearance of tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of orexin-A, following repeated administrations of this agent.


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