Ensete superbum ameliorates renal dysfunction in experimental diabetes mellitus


Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram-695581, Kerala, India


Objective(s):Hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications like nephropathy. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract of Ensete superbum seeds (ESSE) on renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods:Glucose, HbA1c, total protein, albumin, renal function markers (urea, uric acid and creatinine), and lipid peroxidation levels were evaluated. Renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were examined along with renal histopathological study.
Results:ESSE (400 mg/kg BW t) administration reduced glucose and HbA1c, and improved serum total protein and albumin in diabetic rats. ESSE in diabetic rats recorded decrement in renal function markers and renal lipid peroxidation products along with significant increment in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Renal morphological abnormalities of diabetic rats were markedly ameliorated by E.superbum.
Conclusion:These results suggest that the antioxidant effect of E. superbum could ameliorate oxidative stress and delay/prevent the progress of diabetic nephropathy in diabetes mellitus.


1.World Health Organization. Diabetes mellitus: Report of a WHO study group, WHO Technical Report Series. 1985.p.727.
2.Shobana S, Sreerama YN, Malleshi NG. Composition and enzyme inhibitory properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) seed coat phenolics: mode of inhibition of aglucosidase and pancreatic amylase. Food Chem 2009; 115:1268–1273.
3.Vivian EM. Type 2 children and adolescence-the next epidemic? Curr Med Res Opin 2006; 22:297–306.
4.Kedziora-Kornatowska K, Szram S, Kornatowski T, Szadujkis- Szadurski L, Kedziora J, Bartosz G. Effect of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation on antioxidative state and renal glomerular basement membrane thickness in diabetic kidney. Nephron Exp Nephrol 2003; 95:134–143.
5.Yildirim O, Buyukbingol Z. In vivo effect of vitamin C with cobalt on oxidative stress in experimental diabetic rat kidney. Diabetes Nutr Metab 2003; 16:208–213.
6.Drummond K, Mauer M. The early natural history of nephropathy in type 1 diabetes: II. Early renal structural changes in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes  2002; 51:1580-1587.
7.White KE, Bilous RW. Type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy show structural-functional relationships that are similar to type 1 disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11:1667-1673.
8.Tervaert TW, Mooyaart AL, Amann K, Cohen AH, Cook HT, Drachenberg CB. Pathologic classification of diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21:556-563.
9.Dickinson PJ, Carrington AL, Frost GS, Boulton AJ. Neurovascular disease, antioxidants and glycation in diabetes.  Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2002; 18:260–272.
10.Odetti P, Pesce C, Traverso N. Comparative trial of Nacetyl-cysteine, taurine, and oxerutin on skin and kidney damage in long-term experimental diabetes.  Diabetes 2003; 52:499–505.
11.Devinder Singh, Rajnendrapal Kaur, Vikas Chander, Kanwaljit Chopra. Antioxidants in the Prevention of Renal Disease. J Med Food 2006; 9:443–450.
12.Levey AS. Nondiabetic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:1505-1511.
13.Arinathan V, Mohan VR, John De Britto A, Murugan C. Wild edibles used by the palliyars of the western ghats, Thamil nadu. Indian J Traditional knowledge 2007; 6: 163-168.
14.Angami A, Gajurel PR, Rethy P, Singh B, Kalita SK. Status and potential of wild edible plants of Arunachal Pradesh. Indian J traditional knowledge 2006; 5:541-550.
15.Saroj kumar V, Jaishanker R, Annamalai A, Iyer CSP. Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman: A rare medicinal plant in urgent need of conservation. Curr Sci 2010; 98:602-603.
16.Yesodharan K, Sujana KA. Ethnomedicinal knowledge among Malamalasar tribe of Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala.  Indian J Traditional knowledge 2007; 6: 481–485.
17.Udayan PS. Some common plants used by Kurichiar tribes of Tiruneli Forest, Wayanad District, Kerala in medicine and other traditional uses. Indian J Traditional knowledge  2008; 7:250–255.
18.Patil HM, Bhaskar VV. Medicinal knowledge system of tribals of Nandurbar dist. Maharastra. Indian J Traditional knowledge 2006; 5:327–330.
19.Jagtap SD. Ethnomedicobotanical uses of endemic and RET plants utilised by the KORKU Tribe of Amaravati District, Maharastra. Indian J Traditional knowledge 2008; 7:284–287.
20.Ramesh B, Pugalendi KV. Antihyperglycemic effect of umbelliferone in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Med Food 2006; 9:562–566.
21.Nathan DM, Singer DE, Hurxthal K, Goodson JD. The clinical information value of the glycosylated hemoglobin assay. N Engl J Med 1984; 310:341–346.
22.Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN. A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J Biochem Biophys 1984; 21:130-132.
23.Maehly AC, Chance B. The assay of catalases and peroxidases. In: Glick D.editor. The methods of biochemical analysis.  New York:  Interscience press; 1954. P. 357-408.
24.Agerguard N, Jense PJ. Procedure for blood glutathione peroxidase determination in cattle and swine. Acta Vet Scand 1982; 23:515-527.
25.David MG, Richard JS. Glutathione reductase. In: Bergmeyer HU.editor. Method of enzymatic analysis. Germany: Weinheim Verlag Chemie; 1983. p. 258-265.
26.Patterson JW, Lazarow A. Determination of glutathione. In: Glick D.,editor. Methods of biochemical analysis. Newyork: Interscience; 1955. p. 259-279.
27.Ohkawa H, Ohishi Ν, Yagi Κ. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979; 95:351-358.
28.John AB, Steven DA. Microsample lipid peroxidation. In: Fleischer S, Packer L.editors. Methods in Enzymology. New York:  Academic Press; 1978. p. 302-310.
29.Brownlee M. Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications. Nature 2001; 414:813-820.
30.Stevens MJ. Redox-based mechanisms in diabetes. Antioxid Redox Signal 2005; 7:1483-1485.
31.Heidland A, Ling H, Vamvakas S, Paczek L. Impaired proteolytic activity as a potential cause of progressive renal disease. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1996; 22:157–161.
32.Rabkin R, Schechter P, Shi JD, Boner G. Protein turnover in the hypertrophy in kidney. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1996; 22:153–156.
33.Tanwar RS, Sharma SB, Singh UR, Prabhu KM. Attenuation of renal dysfunction by anti-hyperglycemic compound isolated from fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2010; 47:83-89.
34.Evan AP, Mong SA, Connors BA, Aronoff GR, Luft FC. The effect of alloxan, and alloxan induced diabetes on the kidney. Anat Rec 1984; 208:33-47.
35.Rajkumar M, Uttam Kumar D, Ghosh D. Attenuation of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica. Biol Pharm Bull 2005; 28:1172–1176.
36.Suba V, Murugesan T, Bhaskara Rao R, Ghosh L, Pal M, Mandal SC. Antidiabetic potential of Barleria lupulina extract in rats. Fitoterapia 2004; 75:1–4.
37.Erah PO, Osmde GE, Omogbai EKI. Hypoglycemic effect of the extract of Solenostemon monostachys leaves. J West Afr Pharm 1996; 10:21–27.
38.Tuvemo T, Ewald U, Kobboh M, Proos LA. Serum magnesium and protein concentrations during the first five years of insulin dependent diabetes in children. Acta Paediatr 1997; 418:7-10.
39.Almdal JP, Vilstrup H. Strict insulin therapy normalizes organ nitrogen contents and the capacity of urea nitrogen synthesis in experimental diabetes in rats. Diabetologia 1988; 31:114-118.
40.Mansour HA, Newairy AA. Amelioration of impaired renal function associated with diabetes by Balanites aegyptiaca fruits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Res Inst 2000; 21:115-125.
 41.Craven PA, Melhem MF, DeRubertis FR. Thromboxane in the pathogenesis of glomerular injury in diabetes. Kidney Int 1992; 42:937–946.
42.Aurell M, Bjorck S. Determination of progressive renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Kidney Int 1992; 41:38-42.
43.Koya D, Hayashi K, Kitada M, Kashiwagi A, Kikkawa R, Haneda M. Effects of antioxidants in diabetes-induced oxidative stress in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14:250-253.
44.Negre-Salvayre A, Salvayre R, Auge N, Pamplona R, Portero-Otin M. Hyperglycemia and glycation in diabetic complications. Antioxid Redox Signal 2009; 11:3071–3109.
45.Obrosova IG, Fathallah L, Liu E, Nourooz-Zadeh J. Early oxidative stress in diabetic kidney: effect of DL-a-lipoic acid. Free Radic Biol Med 2003; 34:186–195.
46.Lee YM, Kim H, Hong EK, Kang BH, Kim SJ. Water extract of 1:1 mixture of Phellodendron cortex and Aralia cortex has inhibitory effects on oxidative stress in kidney of diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;73:429–436.
47.Gregus Z, Fekete T, Halaszi E, Klaassen CD. Lipoic acid impairs glycine conjugation of benzoic acid and renal excretion of benzoylglycine. Drug Metab Dispos 1996; 24:682-688.
48.Loven D, Schedl H, Wilson H, Daabees TT, Stegink LD, Diekus M. Effect of insulin and oral glutathione on glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activities in organs of rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes. Diabetes 1986; 35:503–507.
49.Ewis SA, Abdel-Rahman MS. Effect of metformin on glutathione and magnesium in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Appl Toxicol 1995; 15:387–390.