Designing mucoadhesive discs containing stem bark extract of Ziziphus jujuba based on Iranian traditional documents

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Traditional Pharmacy, Faculty of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Herbal Medicine Department, Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Faculty of Traditional Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Objective (s): Mucoadhesive disc is one of the various routes of drug delivery for curing buccal disease.Materials and Methods:Everydiscs containing 70 mg stem bark extract of Ziziphus jujuba were formulated  by using Carbopol 934, PVP k30 and gelatin as polymers. Discs were made by granulation  and direct compression. Discs were standardized based on the total phenol.  Properties such as in vitro and in vivo mucoadhesion, drug release, water uptake, and disintegration were carried out.
Results: Discs showed excellent mucoadhesion and released high amount of the active ingredients (47%) immediately and completed after approximately the first hour. They had a good adhesion in buccal cavity.
Conclusion:This study showed that the kinetics of release of the active substance from the mucoadhesive disc obeyed the zero order kinetic and didn’t follow the fick’s law. The water uptake and dissolution (DS), increased with the passing of time.


1. Shojaei AH. Buccal mucosa as a route for systemic drug delivery: a review. J Pharm Pharm Sci 1998; 1:15-30.
2. Squier CA, Wertz PW. Permeability and the pathophysiology of oral mucosa. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 1993; 12:13–24
3. Hearndena V, Sankar V, Hull K. New developments and opportunities in oral mucosal drug delivery for local and systemic disease. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2012; 64:16–28.
4. Andrews GP, Laverty TP, Jones DS. Mucoadhesive polymeric platforms for controlled drug delivery. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2009; 71:505–518.
5. Aghili MH. Aghili treatments book. Tehran: Iran Institute of Medicine Studies and Islamic medicine press; 2004.
6. Azam Khan M.  Aksir Azam. Tehran: Institute of Medicine Studies and Islamic medicine press; 2004. V
7. Arzani MA. Akbari Medicine. Tehran: Jalal Publisher; 2008.p. 385.
8. Mahajan RT, Chopda MZ. Phyto-pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba Mill- A plant review. Pharmacognosy Review  2009; 3:320-329.
9. Amin GR. Popular Medicinal Plants of Iran. Tehran:Tehran University of Medical Sciences publisher; 2005. p. 198.
10. Salehi Soormaghi MH. Medicinal Plants and Herbal Therapy. Tehran:Tehran University of Medical Sciences publisher; 2002.
11. Avicenna. Canon of Medicine. Tehran: Soroosh Publisher; 1986. p. 314.
12. Ibn al-Nafis. Al-Shamil fi al-Tibb. Beirut: cultural foundation publication; 1963.
13. Hamedi Sh, Shams-Ardekani MR, Sadeghpour O, Amin GR, Hajighasemali D, Feyzabadi Z. The most common herbs to cure the most common oral disease: stomatitis recurrent aphthus ulcer (RAU). Iran Red Crescent Med J 2015; new accepts, impress.
14. Handa SS, Rakesh DD. Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Trieste: international center and high technology, 2008. P. 156-158.
15. Fazli R, Nazar Nejad N, Ebrahim zadeh MA. Assess the level of total phenolics and flavonoids and antioxidant activity of bark Beech, Hornbeam and Spruce. Iran J Natl Resources?? 2013; 66:339-349
16. Yousefbeyk F, Gohari AR, Hashemighahderijan Z, Ostad SN, Salehi Sourmaghi MH, Amini M, et al. Bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids from Daucus littoralis Smith subsp, hyrcanicus Rech.f, an endemic species of Iran. Daru 2014; 22:12.
17. Basanta Kumar J, Bhabagrahi R, Subrat K. Wound Healing Potential of Ziiphus xyloprus wild. (Rhamnaceae) Stem bark ethanol extract using in vitro and in vivo model. J Drug Deliv Ther 2012; 2: 41-46.
18. Perioli L, Ambrogi V, Giovagnoli S, Ricci M, Blasi P, Rossi C. Mucoadhesive Bilayerd Tablets For Buccal Sustained Release of Flurbiprofen. AAPS PharmSciTech  2007; 8:E20-E27.    
19. Llabot JM, Manzo RH, Allemandi DA. Double-layered mucoadhesive tablets containing nystatin. AAPS PharmSciTech  2002; 3:47-52
20. Kate VK, Payghan SA. Effect of bioadhesion and permeability on dissolution behaviour of piroxicam mucoadhesive fast disintegrating tablet. inventi rapid. Pharm Tech 2013; 2:2-7.
21. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, US pharmacopeia 35, National Formulary: United States Pharmacopeial Publisher; 2012.
22. Phillipson JD. Phytochemistry and medicinal plants. Phytochem 2001; 56:237-243.
23. Anlar S, Capan Y, Hincal AA. Physico-chemical and bioadhesive properties of polyacrylic acid polymers. Pharmazie 1993; 48:285-287.
24. Aulton, ME. Pharmaceutics ? The Science of Dosage From Design. 2nd ed. Mashhad: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Press; 2001.p.168-191
25. Afshari Taromi F, Valadoost Tabrizi V. Review of polymerization polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by solution method and Synthetic studies. J Polym Sci Technol 1993; 6:38-47.
26. Nguyen TT, Ghosh C, Hwang SG, Chanunpanich N, Park JS. Porous core/sheath composite nanofibers 
fabricated by coaxial electrospinning as a potential mat for drug release system. Int J Pharm 2012; 439:296-306.
27. Wang FP, Mu PH, Zhang JY, Li WX, Wang QZ, Du XZ. Study on preparation and swelling kinetics of P (AA-co-C8PhEO10Mac) pH-sensitive hydrogel in vitro drug release study. J Appl Polym Sci 2013; 130:1981-1989.
28. Malacarne J, Carvalho RM, de Goes MF, Svizero N, Pashley DH, Tay FR, et al. Water sorption/solubility of dental adhesive resins. Dent Mater 2006; 22:973-980
29. Nishitani, Y, Yoshiyama M, Hosaka K, Tagami J, Donnelly A, Carrilho M, et al. Use of Hoy's solubility parameters to predict water sorption/solubility of experimental primers and adhesives. Eur J Oral Sci 2007; 115:81-86.
30. Salamat-Miller N, Chittchang M, Johnston TP. The use of mucoadhesive polymers in buccal drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2005; 57:1666 -1691.
31. Singh B, Chakkal SK, Ahuja N. Formulation and optimization of controlled release mucoadhesive tablets of atenolol using response surface methodology. AAPS PharmSciTech  2006; 7:E1-E10.