Evaluation, prediction and optimization the ultrasound-assisted extraction method using response surface methodology: antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L.

Document Type : Original Article


1 School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran

2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, International campus, Department of Food Science and Technology, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

4 School of Pharmacy; Biotechnology Research Center; Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

5 Department of Food Science and Technology, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran

6 Department of Food and Drug Control, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

7 Medical Surgical Nursing, Social Determinant of Health Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran


Objective(s):To optimize the extraction method using response surface methodology, extract the phenolic compounds, and identify the antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L.  extracts.
Materials and Methods: Maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) (4, 7, 10 min treatment time, 40, 70, 100 % high-intensity and 60, 80, 100 % (v v-1) methanol purity) were applied to obtain the extracts. SEM was conducted to provide the microstructure of the extracted plant. MICs (colorimetric assay), MFCs (colony diameter), total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, radical scavenging capacity and extraction efficiency were determined. HPLC analysis was applied to measure the existent phenolic compounds.
Results: A quadratic model (4 min treatment time, 74.5 % high-intensity and 74.2 % solvent purity) was suggested as the best (TPC: 20.89 mg GAE g-1 d.m., TFC: 6.22 mg QEs g-1 d.m., DPPH IC50: 21.86 µg ml-1 and EE: 113.65 mg g-1 d.m.) UAE extraction model. The optimized UAE extract was generally more effective against Gram-positive microorganisms (MIC: 10-20; MBC: 10-40 (mg ml-1)) than Gram-negative ones (MIC: 40; MBC: >40 (mg ml-1)). Moreover, it (MGI: 2.32-100 %) revealed more anti-mold activity than maceration (MGI: Conclusion: RSM optimization was successfully applied for UAE from S. parviflora. The considerable antioxidant and biological properties were attributed to the phenolic compounds.


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