Effect of mobile phone radiation on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice


1 Physiology Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

2 Department of Neurology, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

3 Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran


Objective(s): Scientific interest in potential mobile phone impact on human brain and performance has significantly increased in recent years. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of mobile phone radiation on seizure threshold in mice.
Materials and methods:BALB/c male mice were randomly divided into three groups: control, acute, and chronic mobile phone radiation for 30, 60, and 90 min with frequency 900 to 950 MHz and pulse of 217 Hz. The chronic group received 30 days of radiation, while the acute group received only once. The intravenous infusion of pentylenetetrazole (5 mg/ml) was used to induce seizure signs.
Results:  Although acute mobile radiation did not change seizure threshold, chronic radiation decreased the clonic and tonic seizure thresholds significantly.
Conclusion: Our data suggests that thecontinued and prolonged contact with the mobile phone radiation might increase the risk of seizure attacks and should be limited.


1. Hamblin DL, Wood AW. Effects of mobile phone emissions on human brain activity and sleep variables. Int J Radiat Biol 2002; 78:659–669.
2. Sander JW. The epidemiology of epilepsy revisited. Curr Opin Neurol 2003; 16:165-170.
3. Mesdaghinia A, Yazdanpanah H, Seddighi M, Banafshe HR, Heydari A. Effect of short-term lead exposure on PTZ-induced seizure threshold in mice. Toxicol Lett 2010; 199:6-9.
4. Kaprana AE, Chimona TS, Papadakis CE, Velegrakis SG, Vardiambasis IO, Adamidis G, et al. Auditory brainstem response changes during exposure to GSM-900 radiation: an experimental study. Audiol Neurootol 2011; 16:270-276.
5. Rağbetli MC, Aydinlioğlu A, Koyun N, Rağbetli C, Bektas S, Ozdemir S. The effect of mobile phone on the number of Purkinje cells: a stereological study. Int J Radiat Biol 2010; 86:548-554.
6. López-Martín E, Bregains J, Relova-Quinteiro JL, Cadarso-Suárez C, Jorge-Barreiro FJ, Ares-Pena FJ. The action of pulse-modulated GSM radiation increases regional changes in brain activity and c-Fos expression in cortical and subcortical areas in a rat model of picrotoxin-induced seizure proneness. J Neurosci Res 2009; 87:1484-1499.
7. Carballo-Quintás M, Martínez-Silva I, Cadarso-Suárez C, Alvarez-Figueiras M, Ares-Pena FJ, López-Martín EA. Study of neurotoxic biomarkers, c-fos and GFAP after acute exposure to GSM radiation at 900 MHz in the picrotoxin model of rat brains. Neurotoxicology 2011; 32:478-494.
8. Tombini  M, Pellegrino G, Pasqualetti P, Assenza G, Benvenga A, Fabrizio E, et al. Mobile phone emissions modulate brain excitability in patients with focal epilepsy. Brain Stimulat 2013; 6:448-454.
9. López-Martín E, Relova-Quinteiro JL, Gallego-Gómez R, Peleteiro-Fernández M, Jorge-Barreiro FJ, Ares-Pena FJ. GSM radiation triggers seizures and increases cerebral c-Fos positivity in rats pretreated with sub convulsive doses of picrotoxin. Neurosci Lett 2006; 398:139-144.
10. Hamidi GA, Jafari-Sabet M, Abed A, Mesdaghinia A, Mahlooji M, Banafshe HR. Gabapentin enhances anti-nociceptive effects of morphine on heat, cold, and mechanical hyperalgesia in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2014; 17:753-759.
11. Abed A, Hajhashemi V, Banafshe HR, Minaiyan M, Mesdaghinia A. Venlafaxine attenuates heat hyperalgesia independent of adenosine or opioid system in a rat model of peripheral neuropathy.  Iran J Pharm Res 2015; 14:843-850.
12. Payandemehr B, Bahremand A, Rahimian R, Ziai P, Amouzegar A, Sharifzadeh M, et al. 5-HT(3) receptor mediates the dose-dependent effects of citalopram on pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizure in mice: involvement of nitric oxide. Epilepsy Res 2012; 101:217-227.
13. Ghasemi M, Shafaroodi H, Nazarbeiki S, Meskar H, Ghasemi A, Bahremand A, et al. Inhibition of NMDA receptor/NO signaling blocked tolerance to the anti-convulsant effect of morphine on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice. Epilepsy Res 2010; 91:39-48.
14. Hajhashemi V, Minaiyan M, Banafshe HR, Mesdaghinia A, Abed A. The anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2015; 18:654-658.
15. Banafshe HR, Ghazi-Khansari M, Ejtemaei Mehr S, Dehpour AR. Cyclosporine attenuates the adenylyl cyclase superactivation induced by chronic cannabinoid treatment. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 557:20-22.
16. Valentini E, Curcio G, Moroni F, Ferrara M, De Gennaro L, Bertini M. Neurophysiological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields on humans: a comprehensive review. Bioelectromagnetics 2007; 28:415-432.
17. Hassanzadeh P, Arbabi E, Rostami F. The ameliorative effects of sesamol against seizures, cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in the experimental model of epilepsy. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2014; 17:100-107.
18. Hardell L, Sage C. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards. Biomed Pharmacother 2008; 62:104-109.
19. Ferreri F, Curcio G, Pasqualetti P, De Gennaro L, Fini R, Rossini PM. Mobile phone emissions and human brain excitability. Ann Neurol 2006; 60:188-196.
20. Ziemann U, Hallett M, Cohen LG. Mechanisms of differentiation-induced plasticity in human motor cortex. J Neurosci 1998; 18:7000 –7007.
21. Huber R, Treyer V, Schuderer J, Berthold T, Buck A, Kuster N, et al. Exposure to pulse modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow. Eur J Neurosci 2005; 21:1000–1006.
22. Nittby H, Brun A, Eberhardt J, Malmgren L, Persson BR, Salford LG. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the  radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone. Pathophysiology 2009; 16:103-112.
23. Esmekaya MA, Tuysuz MZ, Tomruk A, Canseven AG, Yücel E, Aktuna Z, et al.  Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure. J Chem Neuroanat 2016; S0891-0618:30008-30004.