The effect of Quercus brantii gall extract on burn wound healing in rat


1 Medical Students' Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Physiology Research Center, Department of Physiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Department of Pharmacognosy and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, HezarJarib Ave, Isfahan, Iran

4 Department of Pathology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Objective(s): The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Quercus brantii galls extract on the rat skin burn wound healing.
Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract of the galls of Q. brantii was used to treat the induced burn wounds on the back of 32 Wistar rats divided into 4 groups. The groups were treated by placebo, 1%, 2% and 4% concentration gall extract gels for 14 days and the efficacy of treatment was assessed based on reduction of burn wound area, as well as histological and molecular characteristics.
Results: The mean wound surface in the 14th day, in all groups treated by Q. brantii gall extracts were larger than control group and the differences were statistically significant (P=0.043). The mean histological wound healing scores were not statistically different. Analysis of nitric oxide and platelet derived growth factor concentration in wound fluids in the 5th day of study showed that there was not any significant difference between groups (P=0.468 and 0.312 respectively). Fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) concentration in the wound fluids, was significantly higher in group treated with 1% gall extract gel in comparison to the control group (P=0.026).
Conclusion: Our results could not prove the significant positive effect of Q. brantii galls extract on the burning wound healing. More studies with more groups treated with different doses of the Q. brantii extract are recommended.


1. Stander M, Wallis LA. The emergency management and treatment of severe burns. Emerg Med Int 2011; 2011:161375.
2. Atiyeh BS, Costagliola M, Hayek SN, Dibo SA. Effect of silver on burn wound infection control and healing: review of the literature. Burns 2007; 33:139-148.
3. Bastos ML, Houly RL, Conserva LM, Andrade VS, Rocha EM, Lyra Lemos RP. Antimicrobial and wound healing activities of Piper hayneanum. J Chem Pharm Res 2011; 3:213-222.
4. Singer AJ, Clark R. Cutaneous wound healing. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:738-746.
5. Cohen JL, Jorizzo JL, Kircik LH. Use of a topical emulsion for wound healing. J Support Oncol 2007; 5:1-9.
6. Neub A, Houdek P, Ohnemus U, Moll I, Brandner JM. Biphasic regulation of AP-1 subunits during human epidermal wound healing. J Invest Dermatol 2007; 127:2453-2462.
7. Al-Waili N, Salom K, Al-Ghamdi AA. Honey for wound healing, ulcers, and burns; data supporting its use in clinical practice. ScientificWorldJournal 2011; 11:766-787.
8. Laplante AF, Moulin V, Auger FA, Landry J, Li H, Morrow G, et al. Expression of heat shock proteins in mouse skin during wound healing. J Histochem Cytochem 1998; 46:1291-1301.
9. Rawat S, Gupta A. Development and Study of Wound Healing Activity of an Ayurvedic Formulation. Asian J Res Pharm Sci 2011; 1:26-28.
10. Barrientos S, Stojadinovic O, Golinko MS, Brem H, Tomic-Canic M. Growth factors and cytokines in wound healing. Wound Repair Regen 2008; 16:585-601.
11. Friesel RE, Maciag T. Molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis: fibroblast growth factor signal transduction. FASEB J 1995; 9:919-925.
12. Ashcroft GS, Horan MA, Ferguson MW. The effects of ageing on wound healing: immunolocalisation of growth factors and their receptors in a murine incisional model. J Anat 1997; 190:351-365.
13. Pierce GF, Mustoe TA, Lingelbach J, Masakowski VR, Gramates P, Deuel TF. Transforming growth factor beta reverses the glucocorticoid-induced wound-healing deficit in rats: possible regulation in macrophages by platelet-derived growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989; 86:2229-2233.
14. Ansel JC, Tiesman JP, Olerud JE, Krueger JG, Krane JF, Tara DC, et al. Human keratinocytes are a major source of cutaneous platelet-derived growth factor. J Clin Invest 1993; 92:671-678.
15. Lynch SE, Colvin RB, Antoniades HN. Growth factors in wound healing. Single and synergistic effects on partial thickness porcine skin wounds. J Clin Invest 1989; 84:640-646.
16. Wink DA, Hanbauer I, Krishna MC, DeGraff W, Gamson J, Mitchell JB. Nitric oxide protects against cellular damage and cytotoxicity from reactive oxygen species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993; 90:9813-9817.
17. Luo JD, Chen AF. Nitric oxide: a newly discovered function on wound healing. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2005; 26:259-264.
18. Bishop A. Role of oxygen in wound healing. J Wound Care 2008; 17:399-402.
19. Song HS, Park TW, Sohn UD, Shin YK, Choi BC, Kim CJ, et al. The effect of caffeic acid on wound healing in skin-incised mice. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2008; 12:343-347.
20. Soneja A, Drews M, Malinski T. Role of nitric oxide, nitroxidative and oxidative stress in wound healing. Pharmacol Rep 2005; 57:108-119.
21. Djerrou Z, Maameri Z, Hamdi-Pacha Y, Serakta M, Riachi F, Djaalab H, et al. Effect of virgin fatty oil of Pistacia lentiscus on experimental burn wound's healing in rabbits. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2010; 7:258-263.
22. Nixon KC, editor An overview of Quercus: Classification and phylogenetics with comments on differences in wood anatomy 2007.
23. Safary A, Motamedi H, Maleki S, Seyyednejad S. A preliminary study on the antibacterial activity of Quercus brantii against bacterial pathogens, particularly enteric pathogens. Int J Botany 2009; 5:176-180.
24. Ebrahimi A, Khayam M, Nejati V. Evaluation of the antibacterial and wound healing activity of quercus persica. J Basic Appl Sci 2012; 8:118-123.
25. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 1999; 299:152-178.
26. Koizumi T, Goto H, Tanaka H, Yamaguchi Y, Shimazaki S. Lecithinized superoxide dismutase suppresses free radical substrates during the early phase of burn care in rats. J Burn Care Res 2009; 30:321-328.
27. Thakur R, Jain N, Pathak R, Sandhu SS. Practices in wound healing studies of plants. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011; 2011: 438056.
28. Greenhalgh DG, Sprugel KH, Murray MJ, Ross R. PDGF and FGF stimulate wound healing in the genetically diabetic mouse. Am J Pathol 1990; 136:1235-1246.
29. Barro CD, Romanet JP, Fdili A, Guillot M, Morel F. Gelatinase concentration in tears of corneal-grafted patients. Curr Eye Res 1998; 17:174-182.
30. Muller M, Trocme C, Lardy B, Morel F, Halimi S, Benhamou PY. Matrix metalloproteinases and diabetic foot ulcers: the ratio of MMP-1 to TIMP-1 is a predictor of wound healing. Diabet Med 2008; 25:419-426.
31. Zandifar E, Sohrabi Beheshti S, Zandifar A, Haghjooy Javanmard S. The effect of captopril on impaired wound healing in experimental diabetes. Int J Endocrinol 2012; 2012:785247.
32. Boykin JV Jr, Baylis C. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy mediates increased nitric oxide production associated with wound healing: a preliminary study. Adv Skin
Wound Care 2007; 20:382-388.
33. Haghjooyjavanmard S, Nematbakhsh M, Monajemi A, Soleimani M. von Willebrand factor, C-reactive protein, nitric oxide, and vascular endothelial growth factor in a dietary reversal model of hypercholesterolemia in rabbit. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2008; 152:91-95.
34. Haghdoost F, Baradaran Mahdavi MM, Zandifar A, Sanei MH, Zolfaghari B, Javanmard SH. Pistacia atlantica eresin has a dose-dependent effect on angiogenesis and skin burn wound healing in rat. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 2013:8.
35. Lai HY, Lim YY, Kim KH. Potential dermal wound healing agent in Blechnum orientale Linn. BMC Complement Altern Med 2011; 11:62.
36. Hemmati AA, Houshmand G, Nemati M, Bahadoram M, Dorestan N, Rashidi-Nooshabadi MR, et al. Wound healing effects of persian Oak (Quercus brantii) ointment in rats. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod 2015; 10:e25508.
37. Jenkins AT, Young A. Smart dressings for the prevention of infection in pediatric burns patients. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2010; 8:1063-1065.
38. Edwards R, Harding KG. Bacteria and wound healing. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2004; 17:91-96.
39. Redwane A, Lazrek HB, Bouallam S, Markouk M, Amarouch H, Jana M. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.). J Ethnopharmacol 2002; 79:261-263.
40. Umachigi S, Jayaveera K, Ashok Kumar C, Kumar G, Kishore Kumar D. Studies on wound healing properties of Quercus infectoria. Trop J Pharm Res 2008; 7:913-9.
41. Basri D, Fan S. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents. Indian J Pharmacol 2005; 37:26.
42. Sakar MK, Sohretoglu D, Ozalp M, Ekizoglu M, Piacente S, Pizza C. Polyphenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of Quercus aucheri leaves. Turk J Chem 2005; 29:555.
43. Abd-El Aal AM, El-Hadidy MR, El-Mashad NB, El-Sebaie AH. Antimicrobial effect of bee honey in comparison to antibiotics on organisms isolated from infected burns. Ann Burns Fire Disasters 2007; 20:83-88.
44. Voravuthikunchai SP, Kitpipit L. Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol Infect 2005; 11:510-512.
45. Singh R, Jain A, Panwar S, Gupta D, Khare S. Antimicrobial activity of some natural dyes. Dyes Pigm 2005; 66:99-102.