The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma

Document Type : Original Article


1 Neurogeneeic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Objective(s): The effects of Curcuma longa (C. longa) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated.
Materials and Methods: Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO2, NO3, MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 μg/ml) rats.
Results: Total and most differential WBC count, NO2, NO3 and MDA were increased but lymphocytes, SOD, CAT and thiol were decreased in asthmatic animals compared to controls (P<0.001). Total WBC, NO2 and NO3 were significantly reduced in treated groups with dexamethasone and all concentrations of C. longa and curcumin compared to asthmatic group (PC. longa and curcumin (PP<0.001). There were significant improvement in eosinophil percentage due to treatment of highest concentration of the extract and curcumin, neutrophil and monocyte due to highest concentration of curcumin and lymphocyte due to highest concentration of the extract and two higher concentrations of curcumin compared to asthmatic group (PP<0.001). Dexamethasone treatment improved monocyte (P<0.001) and lymphocyte (P<0.01) percentages.
Conclusion: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of C. longa extract and its constituent curcumin in animal model of asthma was observed which suggest a therapeutic potential for the plant and its constituent on asthma.


1.Control CfD, Prevention. Chronic diseases: the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. http://www cdc gov/chronicdisease/ overview/index htm accessed. 2015;1:16.
2.Chung K. Role of inflammation in the hyperreactivity of the airways in asthma. Thorax. 1986;41:657-662.
3.Lacoste JY, Bousquet J, Chanez P, Van Vyve T, Simony-Lafontaine J, Lequeu N, et al. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation in asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;92:537-548.
4.Ahmad A, Shameem M, Husain Q. Relation of oxidant-antioxidant imbalance with disease progression in patients with asthma. ‎Ann Thorac Med 2012;7:226-232.
5.Caramori G, Papi A. Oxidants and asthma. Thorax. 2004;59:170-173.
6.MacNee W. Pulmonary and systemic oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2005;2:50-60.
7.Nadeem A, Raj HG, Chhabra SK. Increased oxidative stress in acute exacerbations of asthma. J Asthma 2005;42:45-50.
8.Cluzel M, Damon M, Chanez P, Bousquet J, De Paulet AC, Michel FB, et al. Enhanced alveolar cell luminol-dependent chemiluminescence in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1987;80:195-201.
9.Saleh D, Ernst P, Lim S, Barnes PJ, Giaid A. Increased formation of the potent oxidant peroxynitrite in the airways of asthmatic patients is associated with induction of nitric oxide synthase: effect of inhaled glucocorticoid. FASEB J 1998;12:929-37.
10.Comhair SA, Bhathena PR, Dweik RA, Kavuru M, Erzurum SC. Rapid loss of superoxide dismutase activity during antigen-induced asthmatic response. The Lancet 2000;355:624.
11.Nadeem A, Masood A, Siddiqui N. Review: Oxidant antioxidant imbalance in asthma: scientific evidence, epidemiological data and possible therapeutic options. Ther Adv Respir Dis 2008;2:215-35.
12.Dobelis IN. Magic and medicine of plants. Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest Association. 1986:p702.
13.Sarkar S, Zaidi S, Chaturvedi AK, Srivastava R, Dwivedi PK, Shukla R, et al. Search for a Herbal Medicine: Anti-asthmatic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Curcuma longa. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2015;3:59-72.
14.Selvam R, Subramanian L, Gayathri R, Angayarkanni N. The anti-oxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa). J Ethnopharmacol 1995;47:59-67.
15.Anna KT, Suhana ME, Das S, Faizah O, Hamzaini A. Anti-inflammatory effect of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on collagen-induced arthritis: an anatomico-radiological study. Clin Ter 2011; 162:201-207.
16.Lampe V, Milobedzka J. Studien über curcumin. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 1913; 46:2235-2240.
17.Milobedzka J, Kostanecki S, Lampe V. Curcumin. Chem Ber 1910;43:2163-2170.
18.Chainani-Wu N. Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa). J Altern Complement Med 2003;9:161-168.
19.Han S, Yang Y. Antimicrobial activity of wool fabric treated with curcumin. Dyes and pigments. 2005; 64:157-161.
20.Park EJ, Jeon CH, Ko G, Kim J, Sohn DH. Protective effect of curcumin in rat liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. J Pharm Pharmacol 2000; 52:437-440.
21.Rao M. Nitric oxide scavenging by curcuminoids. J Pharm Pharmacol 1997;49:105-107.
22.Reddy ACP, Lokesh B. Effect of dietary turmeric (Curcuma longa) on iron-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat liver. Food Chem Toxicol 1994;32:279-283.
23.Jeong GS, Oh GS, Pae HO, Jeong SO, Kim YC, Shin MK, et al. Comparative effects of curcuminoids on endothelial heme oxygenase-1 expression: ortho-methoxy groups are essential to enhance heme oxygenase activity and protection. Exp Mol Med 2006;38:393-400.
24.Salama SM, Abdulla MA, AlRashdi AS, Ismail S, Alkiyumi SS, Golbabapour S.  Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa on thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013;13:1-17.
25.Salmon M, Walsh DA, Huang TJ, Barnes PJ, Leonard TB, Hay DW, et al. Involvement of cysteinyl leukotrienes in airway smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis after repeated allergen exposure in sensitized Brown Norway rats. Br J Pharmacol 1999;127:1151-1158.
26.Babayigit A, Olmez D, Karaman O, Ozogul C, Yilmaz O, Kivcak B, et al. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on airway histology in a mouse model of chronic asthma. Allergy Asthma Proc 2009;30:186-191.
27.Yousefniapasha Y, Jorsaraei G, Gholinezhadchari M, Mahjoub S, Hajiahmadi M, Farsi M. Nitric oxide levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma of infertile smoking men. Cell J 2015;17:129-136.
28.Janero DR. Malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid-reactivity as diagnostic indices of lipid peroxidation and peroxidative tissue injury. Free Radic Biol Med 1990;9:515-540.
29.Madesh M, Balasubramanian K. Microtiter plate assay for superoxide dismutase using MTT reduction by superoxide. Indian J Biochem Biophys 1998;35:184-188.
30.Aebi H. (13) Catalase in vitro. Meth Enzymol 1984;105:121-126.
31.Beers RF, Sizer IW. A spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. J Biol chem 1952;195:133-140.
32.Hosseinzadeh H, Sadeghnia HR. Safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus (saffron), attenuated cerebral ischemia induced oxidative damage in rat hippocampus. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2005;8:394-399.
33.Barnes PJ. Reactive oxygen species and airway inflammation. Free Radic Biol Med 1990;9:235-243.
34.Bowler RP, Crapo JD. Oxidative stress in airways: is there a role for extracellular superoxide dismutase? American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;166:38-43.
35.Boskabady MH, Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Nemati H, Esmaeilzadeh M. Inhibitory effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on histamine (H1) receptors of guinea pigtracheal chains. Pharmazie 2010;65:300-305.
36.Luksza A, Jones D. Comparison of whole-blood eosinophil counts in extrinsic asthmatics with acute and chronic asthma. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1982;285:1229-1231.
37.Keyhanmanesh R, Boskabady MH , Eslamizadeh MJ, Khamneh S, Ebrahimi MA. The effect of thymoquinone, themain constituent of Nigella sativa ontracheal responsiveness and white blood cell count in lung lavage of sensitized guineapigs. Planta Med 2010;76:218-222.
38.Kanazawa H, Shoji S, Yoshikawa T, Hirata K, Yoshikawa J. Increased production of endogenous nitric oxide in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:1244-1250.
39.Ricciardolo FL, Nijkamp FP, Folkerts G. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) as therapeutic target for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Curr Drug Targets 2006;7:721-735.
40.Gutierrez HH, Nieves B, Chumley P, Rivera A, Freeman BA. Nitric oxide regulation of superoxide-dependent lung injury: oxidant-protective actions of endogenously produced and exogenously administer-ed nitric oxide. Free Radic Biol Med 1996;21:43-52.
41.Barnes PJ, Liew F. Nitric oxide and asthmatic inflammation. J Immunol 1995;16(3):128-130.
42.Robbins RA, Grisham MB. Nitric oxide. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 1997;29:857-860.
43.Sharma A, Bansal S, Nagpal R. Lipid peroxidation in bronchial asthma. Indian J Pediatr 2003;70:715-717.
44.Corradi M, Pignatti P, Manini P, Andreoli R, Goldoni M, Poppa M, et al. Comparison between exhaled and sputum oxidative stress biomarkers in chronic airway inflammation. Eur Respir J 2004;24:1011-1017.
45.Shokry DM, El-Tarahony SA. Oxidant-antioxidant balance in childhood asthma. Egypt J Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013;11:35-40.
46.Rahman I, Biswas SK, Kode A. Oxidant and antioxidant balance in the airways and airway diseases. Eur J Pharmacol 2006;533:222-239.
47.Kurosawa M, Kobayashi H, Nakano M. Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activities in platelets from stable bronchial asthmatic patients. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol 1993;101:61-65.
48.Powell CV, Nash AA, Powers HJ, Primhak RA. Antioxidant status in asthma. Pediatric Pulmonol 1994;18:34-38.
49.Dai C, Tang S, Li D, Zhao K, Xiao X. Curcumin attenuates quinocetone-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in human hepatocyte L02 cells. Toxicol Mech Methods 2015;25:340-346.
50.Ghosh S, Masri F, Comhair S, Andreadis A, Swaidani S, Aronica M. Nitration of proteins in murine model of asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:889.
51.Ghosh S, Janocha AJ, Aronica MA, Swaidani S, Comhair SA, Xu W, et al. Nitrotyrosine proteome survey in asthma identifies oxidative mechanism of catalase inactivation. J Immunol 2006;176:5587-5597.
52.Abdel-Daim MM, Abdou RH. Protective effects of diallyl sulfide and curcumin separately against thallium-induced toxicity in rats. Cell J 2015;17:379-388.
53.Masella R, Di Benedetto R, Varì R, Filesi C, Giovannini C. Novel mechanisms of natural antioxidant compounds in biological systems: involvement of glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes. J Nutr Biochem 2005;16:577-586.
54.Karoui H, Hogg N, Fréjaville C, Tordo P, Kalyanaraman B. Characterization of sulfur-centered radical intermediates formed during the oxidation of thiols and sulfite by peroxynitrite ESR-spin trapping and oxygen uptake studies. J Biol Chem 1996;271:6000-6009.
55.Brown LAS, Ping X-D, Harris FL, Gauthier TW. Glutathione availability modulates alveolar macrophage function in the chronic ethanol-fed rat. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2007;292:824-832.
56.Rahman I, Gilmour PS, Jimenez LA, MacNee W. Oxidative stress and TNF-a induce histone Acetylation and NF-кB/AP-1 activation in Alveolar epithelial cells:Potential mechanism In gene transcription in lung inflammation. Mol Cell Biochem 2002:239-248.
57.Liu Y, Wu Y, Zhang P. Protective effects of curcumin and quercetin during benzo (a) pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in mice. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2015;19:1736-1743.
58.Tayyem RF, Heath DD, Al-Delaimy WK, Rock CL. Curcumin content of turmeric and curry powders. Nutr Cancer 2006;55:126-131.