1. Hoyert DL, Xu J. Deaths: preliminary data for 2011. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2012; 61:1–51.
2. Pagidipati NJ, Gaziano TA. Estimating deaths from cardiovascular disease: a review of global methodologies of mortality measurement. Circulation 2013; 127:749–756.
3. Canto JG, Kiefe CI, Greenland P. Coronary heart disease risk factors and mortality—reply. JAMA 2012; 307:1137–1138.
4. Imanshahidi M, Hosseinzadeh H. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine. Phytother Res 2008; 22:999–1012.
5. Abd El-Wahab AE, Ghareeb DA, Sarhan EE, Abu-Serie MM, El Demellawy MA. In vitro biological assessment of Berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine: antioxidants, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-diabetic and anticancer effects. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013; 13:218.
6. Zarei A, Changizi-Ashtiyani S, Taheri S, Ramezani M. A quick overview on some aspects of endocrinological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Avicenna J Phytomed 2015; 5:485–497.
7. Cheng F, Wang Y, Li J, Su C, Wu F, Xia W-H, et al. Berberine improves endothelial function by reducing endothelial microparticles-mediated oxidative stress in humans. Int J Cardiol 2013; 167:936–942.
8. Mohammadi A, Sahebkar A, Kermani T, Zhilaee M, Tavallaie S, Ghayour Mobarhan M. Barberry administration and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with metabolic syndrome. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014; 16:e16786.
9. Choi B, Ahn I, Kim Y, Park J, Lee S, Hyun C, et al. Berberine reduces the expression of adipogenic enzymes and inflammatory molecules of 3T3-L1 adipocyte. Exp Mol Med 2006; 38:599.
10. Lee HY, He X, Ahn J. Enhancement of antimicrobial and antimutagenic activities of Korean barberry (Berberis koreana Palib.) by the combined process of high-pressure extraction with probiotic fermentation. J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90:2399–2404.
11. Iloon Kashkooli R, Najafi SS, Sharif F, Hamedi A, Hoseini Asl MK, Najafi Kalyani M, et al. The effect of Berberis vulgaris extract on transaminase activities in non-alcoholic Fatty liver disease. Hepat Mon 2015; 15:e25067.
12. Rosenbaum CC, O’Mathuna DP, Chavez M, Shields K. Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Altern Ther Health Med 2010; 16:32–40.
13. Kermanshahi H, Riasi A. Effect of dietary dried Berberis vulgaris fruit and enzyme on some blood parameters of laying hens fed wheat-soybean based diets. Int J Poult Sci 2006; 5:89–93.
14. Guo ZB, Fu JG. [Progress of cardiovascular pharmacologic study on berbamine]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2005; 25:765–768.
15. Manolov P, Nikolov N, Markov M, Toneva M. [Experimental research on Berberis vulgaris]. Eksp Med Morfol 1985; 24:41–45.
16. Fatehi M, Saleh TM, Fatehi-Hassanabad Z, Farrokhfal K, Jafarzadeh M, Davodi S. A pharmacological study on Berberis vulgaris fruit extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 102:46–52.
17. Fatehi-Hassanabad Z, Jafarzadeh M, Tarhini A, Fatehi M. The antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of aqueous extract from Berberis vulgaris fruit on hypertensive rats. Phytother Res 2005; 19:222–225.
18. Olmez E, Ilhan M. Evaluation of the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonistic action of berberine in isolated organs. Arzneimittelforschung 1992; 42:1095–1097.
19. Kang DG, Sohn EJ, Kwon EK, Han JH, Oh H, Lee HS. Effects of berberine on angiotensin-converting enzyme and NO/cGMP system in vessels. Vasc Pharmacol 2002; 39:281–286.
20. Wen-Fei C, Mao-Hsiung Y, Chieh-Fu C. Mechanism of vasodilatory effect of berberine in rat mesenteric artery. Eur J Pharmacol 1991; 204:35–40.
21. Ko WH, Yao XQ, Lau CW, Law WI, Chen ZY, Kwok W, et al. Vasorelaxant and antiproliferative effects of berberine. Eur J Pharmacol 2000; 399:187–196.
22. Xu SZ, Zhang Y, Ren JY, Zhou ZN. Effects of berberine of L-and T-type calcium channels in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 1997; 18:515–518.
23. Chun YT, Yip TT, Lau KL, Kong YC, Sankawa U. A biochemical study on the hypotensive effect of berberine in rats. Gen Pharmacol 1979; 10:177–182.
24. Mahdavi N, Joukar S, Najafipour H, Asadi-Shekaari M. The promising effect of barberry (Zereshk) extract against experimental pulmonary microvascular remodeling and hypertension: A comparison with sildenafil. Pharm Biol 2016; 54:509–515.
25. Lee S, Lim HJ, Park HY, Lee KS, Park JH, Jang Y. Berberine inhibits rat vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in vitro and improves neointima formation after balloon injury in vivo: berberine improves neointima formation in a rat model. Atherosclerosis 2006; 186:29–37.
26. Marin Neto JA, Maciel BC, Secches AL, Gallo L. Cardiovascular effects of berberine in patients with severe congestive heart failure. Clin Cardiol 1988; 11:253–260.
27.Wong KK. Mechanism of the aortic relaxation induced by low concentrations of berberine. Planta Med 1998; 64:756–757.
28. Bova S, Padrini R, Goldman WF, Berman DM, Cargnelli G. On the mechanism of vasodilating action of berberine: possible role of inositol lipid signaling system. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1992; 261:318–323.
29. Wen-Fei C, Mao-Hsiung Y, Chieh-Fu C. Mechanism of vasodilatory effect of berberine in rat mesenteric artery. Eur J Pharmacol 1991; 204:35–40.
30. Wang YX, Yao XJ, Tan YH. Effects of berberine on delayed afterdepolarizations in ventricular muscles in vitro and in vivo. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1994; 23:716–722.
31. Chi J, Chu S, Lee C, Chou N, Su M. Mechanical and electrophysiological effects of 8-oxoberberine (JKL1073A) on atrial tissue. Bri J Pharm 1996; 118:503–512.
32. Zhang W, Chen SG, Ju HS, Zhao SH, Zou CM, Hao JM, et al. Mechanisms of protective effects of berbamine on ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharm 1992; 14:677–684.
33. Li BX, Yang BF, Zhou J, Xu CQ, Li YR. Inhibitory effects of berberine on IK1, IK, and HERG channels of cardiac myocytes. Acta Pharm Sin 2001; 22:125–131.
34. Wang YX, Zheng YM. Ionic mechanism responsible for prolongation of cardiac action-potential duration by berberine. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1997; 30:214–222.
35. Guo Y, Chen Y, Tan Z, Klaassen CD, Zhou H. Repeated administration of berberine inhibits cytochromes P450 in humans. Eur J Clin Harmacol 2012; 68:213–217.
36. Zeng XH, Li YY. Clinical observations of the effect of berberine for congestive heart failure. US Chinese J Angiocardiomyopathy 2001; 6:308–311.
37. Li XT, Wang YL. [Effect of berberine on cytosolic free calcium of rat myocardial cells in vitro]. Yao Xue Xue Bao 1997; 32:721–725.
38. Shaffer JE. Inotropic and chronotropic activity of berberine on isolated guinea pig atria. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1985; 7:307–315.
39. Murry CE, Jennings RB, Reimer KA. Preconditioning with ischemia: a delay of lethal cell injury in ischemic myocardium. Circulation 1986; 74:1124–1136.
40. Yellon DM, Hausenloy DJ. Myocardial reperfusion injury. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:1121–1135.
41. Gao H, Chen L, Yang HT. Activation of α1B-adrenoceptors alleviates ischemia/reperfusion injury by limitation of mitochondrial Ca2+ overload in cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res 2007; 75:584–595.
42. Zhang CM, Gao L, Zheng YJ, Yang HT. Berbamine protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury by maintaining cytosolic Ca(2+) homeostasis and preventing calpain activation. Circ J 2012; 76:1993–2002.
43. Yang J, Zhou ZY, Xu JG. [Protective effect of berberine on cardiac hypertrophy induced by L-thyroxine in rats]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao 2004; 35:223–225.
44. Hong Y, Hui SS, Chan BT, Hou J. Effect of berberine on catecholamine levels in rats with experimental cardiac hypertrophy. Life Sci 2003; 72:2499–2507.
45. Tanabe H, Suzuki H, Mizukami H, Inoue M. Double blockade of cell cycle progression by coptisine in vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2005; 70:1176–1184.
46. Zeng XH, Zeng XJ, Li YY. Efficacy and safety of berberine for congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The Am J Cardiol 2003; 92:173–176.
47. Zhou Z, Xu J, Lan T. [Protective effect of berberine on isolated perfused heart in heart failure]. Hua Xi Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao 2001;32:417–418.
48. Li BY, Yang BF, Li WH. Effects of berbamine on hemodynamics and myocardial reperfusion injury in isolated working rabbit hearts. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 1991; 12:48–52.
49. Ren LH, Vasil’ev AV, Orkehov AN, Tertov VV, Tutel’ian VA. [Evaluation of the antiatherosclerotic properties of natural compounds of plant origin on cell cultures of the human aortic intima]. Farmakol Toksikol 1988; 52:44–46.
50. Zhang CM, Gao L, Zheng YJ, Yang HT. Berbamine increases myocardial contractility via a Ca2+-independent mechanism. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2011; 58:40–48.
51. Xu Y, Zhang S. A derivative of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid is a new and potential calmodulin antagonist. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1986; 140:461–467.
52. Zhuo-Yi H, Yue-Shong G, Wen-Long H. Interaction of berbamine compound E 6 and calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase. Biochem Pharmacol 1992; 44:1543–1547.
53. Huang CG, Chu ZL, Wei SJ, Jiang H, Jiao BH. Effect of berberine on arachidonic acid metabolism in rabbit platelets and endothelial cells. Thromb Res 2002; 106:223–227.
54. Feng CL, Liu SX, Feng QY, Yin JJ, Zhao L. A comparative study of antiplatelet aggregation by berberine hydrochloride with low dose aspirin. Shandong Med 1996; 36:11–12.
55. Fukuda K, Hibiya Y, Mutoh M, Koshiji M, Akao S, Fujiwara H. Inhibition by berberine of cyclooxygenase-2 transcriptional activity in human colon cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 66:227–233.
56. Wu JF, Liu TP. Effects of berberine on platelet aggregation and plasma levels of TXB2 and 6-keto- PGFla in rats withreversible middle cerebral artery
occlusion. Acta Pharm Sin 1995; 2.
57. Huang CG, Chu ZL, Yang ZM. Effects of berberine on cytoplasmic cAMP and calcium influx of rabbit platelets. Acad J Sec Mil Med Univ 1991; 12:320–322.
58. Hui KK, Jun LY, Chan WFA, Tse E. Interaction of berberine with human platelet α 2 adrenoceptors. Life sciences 1991;49:315–324.
59. Moazezi Z, Qujeq D. Berberis Fruit Extract and Biochemical Parameters in Patients With Type II Diabetes. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod 2014; 9:e13490.
60. Kong WJ, Zhang H, Song DQ, Xue R, Zhao W, Wei J, et al. Berberine reduces insulin resistance through protein kinase C–dependent up-regulation of insulin receptor expression. Metabolism 2009; 58:109–119.
61. Shidfar F, Keshavarz A, Hosseyni S, Ameri A, Yarahmadi S. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patients. East Mediterran Health J 2008;14:305–315.
62. Tang LQ, Wei W, Chen L-M, Liu S. Effects of berberine on diabetes induced by alloxan and a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 108:109–115.
63. Shidfar F, Ebrahimi SS, Hosseini S, Heydari I, Shidfar S, Hajhassani G. The effects of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract on serum lipoproteins, apoB, apoA-I, homocysteine, glycemic control and total antioxidant capacity in Type 2 diabetic patients. Iran J Pharm Res 2012; 11:643–652.
64. Grossman W. Diastolic function and heart failure: an overview. Eur Heart J 1990; 11:2–7.
65. Kanmanthareddy A, Reddy M, Ponnaganti G, Sanjani HP, Koripalli S, Adabala N, et al. Alternative medicine in atrial fibrillation treatment-Yoga, acupuncture, biofeedback and more. J Thorac Dis 2015; 7:185–92.
66. Palamarchuk AS, Bondarenko VE, Grazhevich Iu V, Guletskaia VN. [Biochemical composition of the fruits of the common barberry]. Farm Zh 1973; 28:84–85.
67. Shamsa F, Ahmadiani A, Khosrokhavar R. Antihistaminic and anticholinergic activity of barberry fruit (Berberis vulgaris) in the guinea-pig ileum. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 64:161–166.
68. Peychev L. Pharmacological investigation on the cardiovascular effects of Berberis vulgaris on tested animals. Pharmacia 2005; 52:118–121.
69. Arayne MS, Sultana N, Bahadur SS. The berberis story: Berberis vulgaris in therapeutics. Pak J Pharm Sci 2007; 20:83–92.
70. Chan E. Displacement of bilirubin from albumin by berberine. Neonatology 1993; 63:201–208.
71. Abushouk AI, Negida A, Ahmed H, Abdel-Daim MM. Neuroprotective mechanisms of plant extracts against MPTP induced neurotoxicity: Future applications in Parkinson’s disease. Biomed Pharmacother 2017; 85:635-645.