LDH as an adjuvant makes Brucella outer-membrane vesicles and outer-membrane vesicle-associated proteins highly protective in mice

Document Type : Original Article


1 School of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832003, China

2 Collaborative Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of High Incidence Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Western China, College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China

3 Department of Basic Medicine, Xinjiang Second Medical College, Kelamayi, Xinjiang, China

4 Wuwei vocational college, Wuwei, Gansu 733000, China



Objective(s): Existing Brucella vaccines are attenuated and can cause vaccine-associated brucellosis; and these safety concerns have affected their application. Although subunit vaccines have the advantages of safety, efficacy, low cost, and rapid production, they are usually poorly immunogenic and insufficient to trigger persistent immunity. Therefore, we added layered double hydroxide (LDH) as an adjuvant to Brucella subunit vaccine formulations to enhance the immune response to the antigen.
Materials and Methods: LDH and Freund’s adjuvant were combined with Brucella outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs) and OMV-associated proteins to form a subunit vaccine, respectively. The immunogenicity of LDH as an adjuvant was assessed in BALB/c mice. We examined levels of immunoglobulin G, G1, and G2a (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a) antibodies (aBs); percentages of Cluster of Differentiation 4-positive (CD4+) and CD8+ T cells in peripheral-blood lymphocytes; and secretion of cytokines in mouse spleen lymphocytes. Finally, splenic index and splenic bacterial load were assessed via Brucella challenge experiments on mice.
Results: The LDH subunit vaccine also produced high levels of specific aBs in mice compared with Freund’s adjuvant subunit vaccine and induced mainly T-helper 1 cell (Th1)-type immune responses. In addition, mice in the LDH subunit vaccine group had significantly lower bacterial loads in their spleens than those in the Freund’s adjuvant subunit vaccine group, and the LDH-OMV vaccine offered a higher level of protection against Brucella attack.
Conclusion: LDH as an adjuvant-paired vaccine provided a high level of protection against Brucella infection.


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